Vicent Espert, Peter Buchanan, Colleen Baker, Malcolm Barker, Mark Locke
Mangrove Creek dam is an 80 m high CFRD constructed between 1976 and 1982 for water supply to the NSW Central Coast area, and is currently operated by Central Coast Council (CCC). The dam is classified as a ‘High A’ Consequence Category dam for both Sunny Day and Flood breach in accordance with ANCOLD guidelines.
Previous assessments of the dam identified that it would not be able to safely pass the ANCOLD Fallback flood capacity of the PMP flood in its current configuration. As such, the dam has been operated at a restricted full supply level for many years.
In 2020, GHD was engaged by CCC to develop a concept and detailed design to increase the spillway capacity using a standards-based approach to achieve the flood capacity fallback position. The first phases of this contract also required GHD to undertake additional investigations and analyses of various aspects of the dam and spillway to confirm the scope of works for the upgrade. During this review, it became evident that although the spillway capacity does not meet the ANCOLD fallback position, the Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) of the existing capacity was relatively low and could potentially be deemed acceptable from a risk-based position.
A Risk Assessment was subsequently undertaken, with a SFAIRP assessment developed based on the new Dam Safety NSW guidelines. This assessment may be the first one to be completed for a major dam using the Dam Safety NSW guidelines. This paper discusses the different outcomes for a standards-based ‘Fallback’/’Simplified’ criteria and risk criteria based on DS NSW regulations, as well as the investigations developed to maintain confidence in the assessment. In addition, it describes a practical case for the application of SFAIRP criteria to a major dam.
In the case of Mangrove Creek Dam, the application of the new DS NSW Guidelines resulted in the dam being assessed as acceptable in its current state, with the FSL returned to the original design level. The outcome provided significant savings to the client, by avoiding costly upgrade works and avoiding disruption to the operation of the storage – a real success story.
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Now showing 1-12 of 37 3483:
Reena Ram, Siraj Perera, Mark Pearse, John Pisaniello, Shane McGrath, Joanne Tingey-Holyoak, Peter Hill
Dam construction in Victoria commenced in the 1850s and there are over 8,000 dams currently regulated by the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (DELWP). Dam ownership spans across state owned water utilities and local government authorities to privately owned hydro-electricity generators and farmers.
Victoria was one of the first states in Australia to adopt risk-informed principles in the management and regulation of dam safety. A recent review of the State’s dam safety regulatory framework included a comparative analysis of Victoria’s dam safety arrangements with other regulatory regimes within Australia and overseas, including a total of 16 jurisdictions. A similar review was conducted in 2010.
The objective of the 2019 review was to examine the effectiveness of dam safety regulation in managing dam safety risks in Victoria and to assess the extent that dam safety regulation was consistent with good practice so that improvement opportunities could be identified.
This paper discusses the processes adopted in comparing various regulatory models, identification of good international practices and opportunities to achieve improved public safety outcomes for dam owners and regulators. In particular, it outlines how the State’s journey in progressively reducing dam safety risks over the years can be further strengthened.
Kyle Smith, David Reid, Riccardo Fanni
The estimation of in situ state parameter, Ψ, is a critical part of the characterisation of tailings storage
facilities (TSFs) for the purpose of liquefaction screening and stability assessments. The cone penetration test with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) supplemented by laboratory testing form the current state of practice tools to assess in situ Ψ. Recently, cavity expansion-based CPTu inversion methods, in particular the NorSand Widget, have achieved routine adoption for many engineering applications including TSFs. However, application of cavity expansion-based methods is not without limitations; most notably, cavity expansion-based methods rely upon extensive material specific calibrations, therefore, the results of such methods are limited to the specific soil stratum to which they are calibrated. Additionally, partially drained conditions developed during CPTu are not explicitly considered in currently available methods.
In order to overcome these limitations, this paper presents a generalised method to interpret Ψ from either drained or undrained CPTu, based upon material-specific CPTu calibrations obtained from the NorSand Widget. Guidance on interpretation of drainage conditions developed during CPTu is provided to assist in application of the method. As the method is based upon the NorSand Widget, the influence of elastic soil rigidity is explicitly considered; therefore, the method does not suffer from stress level bias common in screening level methods for estimation of Ψ.
Jonathon Reid, Brendan Trebilco
The dam reviewed was designed and constructed in two stages, with the embankment completed in 1965. The dam comprises a 37 m high earth and rockfill maximum section on the creek alignment and zoned earthfill embankments of varying arrangements on the abutment flanks with a total crest length over 2km.
A Dam Safety Review was undertaken as part of the owners on-going commitment to maintain its portfolio of dams in a safe and functional state. The dam has suffered from high seepage rates that were first observed in 1971 after the reservoir rose to a historic high level, which was then exacerbated in 2011 after the reservoir rose a further 10m to reach the Full Supply Level for the first time. Reviews of the embankment stability at this time resulted in operating restrictions being placed on the reservoir level.
Detailed instrumentation data collected over a range of filling events showed the rock foundations to be highly responsive in the areas of observed seepage. This resulted in rapid pore pressure responses in foundation soils and the lower portion of the embankment after a rise in reservoir level, but a much slower pore pressure response in the upper parts of the embankment.
Seepage and stability analyses were undertaken based on the high quality instrumentation data to review the stability of the sections for various operating levels and with projected pore pressure increases for rapid flood loading scenarios. The paper explores the sensitivity of the analyses completed and how different construction standards applied to varying sections on the same embankment resulting in acceptable and undesirable outcomes.
David Stephens, Phillip Jordan, Peter Hill, Tim Craig, James Woolley and Bill Hakin
As part of the design of a proposed new hydropower dam (the Alimit HPP), on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, design flood estimates have been prepared using a RORB Monte Carlo approach for events up to and including the Probable Maximum Flood. Compared with Australia, the Philippines is a relatively data sparse environment, with limited rainfall gauge records and even fewer streamflow gauging stations. As such, considerable effort was required to derive design rainfall inputs for Monte Carlo simulation, including rainfall depths as well as temporal and spatial patterns.
This project made use of a number of remotely sensed data sets, including 20 years of global half hourly gridded rainfall data from NASA and global gridded estimates of rainfall intensity-frequency-duration. As part of the project, these data sets were benchmarked against local records from Luzon as well as selected Australian data sets.
This paper sets out the process used to determine design flood estimates in the Philippines, as well as summarising the usefulness of these new data sets for potential application in data sparse regions of Australia.
Reza Asadi, Mahdi M. Disfani, Behrooz Ghahreman-Nejad
Rockfill, a granular material with particle sizes usually in the range of 2 cm to 1 m, is commonly used as the main construction material in a range of civil engineering applications such as water and tailings retaining embankment dams. Rockfill’s complex behaviour mainly stems from its inherently large particle size grading on one hand and its discrete and heterogeneous nature on the other hand. The investigation of mechanical behaviour of rockfill requires expensive and time-consuming laboratory testing in large apparatuses, which are scarce. This highlights the importance of numerical investigation techniques such as Discrete Element Method (DEM) in better understanding of rockfill properties. In this paper initially a concise and comprehensive overview of effective parameters on Rockfill behaviour are presented followed by the discussion on analytical and numerical methods for investigation of the mechanical behaviour of Rockfill.
Finally, a combination of Replacement and Bonded-Particles (clusters) methods is proposed so the effects of particle shape and breakage, which are among the most effective parameters, can be adequately investigated. The preliminary results of DEM modelling are also presented which show a good agreement with the expected micro-mechanical behaviour of rockfill.