Identification of people impacted by a hypothetical dam-break flood is required to understand the potential hazard a dam poses to downstream communities. The New Zealand Dam Safety Guidelines and the Australian Consequence Categories for Dams define these people collectively as the “Population at Risk” (PAR) and recommend that evaluation of PAR should include both permanent and temporary populations. However, there is limited guidance on specific methods to determine these populations. This paper provides an outline of an evidence-based, repeatable method to determine the PAR (both permanent and temporary) within a dam-break flood inundation zone. The method is intended to provide guidance for people tasked with estimating PAR in accordance with the New Zealand Dam Safety Guidelines. The methodology provides a current practice framework for users to apply and estimate the PAR in a clear and defendable manner.
Earthquake design of a dam and associated appurtenant structures is a key aspect of dam design in the modern era. This paper outlines the design process undertaken to address potential earthquake loading for the 32m high outlet tower to be constructed as part of the new Eurobodalla Southern Storage project on the NSW South Coast. The driver for the project is to provide increased water supply security to communities on the South Coast, an area that is currently serviced by a single reservoir and is subject to frequent water restrictions. Construction is planned to commence for the project in early 2021.
This paper presents the design methodology undertaken to meet the requirements for earthquake design and presents a novel defensive design solution to improve the reliability of the outlet works for post-earthquake operation. The Authors contend that utilising this approach in design of future outlet towers will provide a greater level of confidence in the ability to undertake intervening measures following a severe earthquake. Moreover, the technology has the potential to serve as a relatively inexpensive interim upgrade measure for existing outlet towers expected to sustain an unacceptable degree of damage under earthquake loading.
Fault displacement can occur due to primary faulting on a main fault intersecting a dam foundation or rim, as well as by secondary faulting. This secondary faulting may be triggered locally by the occurrence of primary faulting on a main fault; its occurrence is conditional on the occurrence of an earthquake on the main fault. A probabilistic approach is most viable for fault displacement hazard analysis. Unlike the case of probabilistic ground motion hazard, which is nonzero even for short return periods due to the occurrence of a broad range of earthquake magnitudes in a wide region around the site, probabilistic fault displacement hazard is zero for return periods less than the recurrence interval of surface faulting earthquakes on the fault. In Australia, these recurrence intervals typically lie in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 years.
Consequently, the fault displacement hazard due to primary faulting may be zero or negligible for return periods shorter than 10,000 or 100,000 years. For longer return periods, the hazard is best evaluated using a risk-based approach, as recommended by ANCOLD (2018); the alternative of using a deterministic approach, which disregards return period, could potentially yield a large fault displacement. The probability of triggered secondary faulting, conditional on the occurrence of a large earthquake on the main fault, is typically one or two orders of magnitude lower than that on the main fault, and so is even more likely to be zero or negligible for return periods shorter than 10,000 to 100,000 years
Failure modes of seepage and internal erosion have been identified as one of the key issues for the
ongoing safety of dams and canals in New Zealand. Accordingly, many dams and canals have had
improvement works carried out to mitigate this issue. This paper examines the long-term performance of these measures including three case studies. It is concluded that the performance of these measures has been variable, but ongoing monitoring and periodic review has identified deterioration in performance. There are a number of technical areas where uncertainties on long-term performance may still remain, such as geotextiles in important filter functions and waterstops of various types.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting momentum, mass and heat transport, and can aid in design and safety issues for dam resilience in modern settings. Applications of CFD have historically been in the aerospace, automotive and chemical process industries with limited application in the hydraulic engineering field; possibly due to the associated computational intensity that is typically required. However, over the past two decades the cost of computing power has decreased substantially while the processing speed has increased exponentially. These developments have now made the application of CFD in the commercial environment feasible. CFD is particularly valuable in complex flow situations where the outputs required cannot be provided by a traditional hydraulic assessment approach and where there are stakeholder drivers such as service life, insurance cover and safety implications of infrastructure. The need for CFD when these drivers and complex flow situations arise, are demonstrated by means of a case study.
In the case study, CFD was used to investigate the flow patterns and the predicted performance of the outlet pipework from Massingir Dam in Mozambique. Three flow scenarios with appropriate pressure and flow boundary conditions were analysed for the outlet pipework, which included bifurcations for power generation from the main discharge conduits. Specific concerns addressed were, firstly, the possible excessive negative pressure in the region of the offtake for power generation and the potential for cavitation effects and, secondly, unacceptable velocity gradients in the power offtake pipework. Results showed that although some negative pressures were possible in one flow scenario, mitigation measures based on the CFD outputs could be considered and designed before construction.
The implementation of CFD in the above case study displays how risk in design can be reduced to ensure safety issues are addressed effectively.
Vietnam has many embankment dams to supply water to the agricultural sector. Most of these dams were built between 1970 and 2000 but have degraded significantly since their construction due to a number of different reasons. Identifying the main potential failure modes for these dams aims to improve their dam safety management systems as well as help to target dam safety rehabilitation works. The research was conducted by analysing 207 Dam Safety Reports and Feasibility Studies published by the Vietnamese Ministry for Agricultural and Rural Development between 2017 and 2019. The priority level of rehabilitation required to these dams was assessed by analysing whether overtopping, seepage and slope stability related potential failure modes were likely to occur. The results revealed the main potential failure modes of embankment dams in Vietnam and the possible reasons for these are discussed. The approaches to rehabilitate the dams that are outlined in the Feasibility Studies were also analysed and are discussed in general terms. The results provide valuable insight into commonly encountered dam safety issues with embankment dams in Vietnam.