Earthquake design of a dam and associated appurtenant structures is a key aspect of dam design in the modern era. This paper outlines the design process undertaken to address potential earthquake loading for the 32m high outlet tower to be constructed as part of the new Eurobodalla Southern Storage project on the NSW South Coast. The driver for the project is to provide increased water supply security to communities on the South Coast, an area that is currently serviced by a single reservoir and is subject to frequent water restrictions. Construction is planned to commence for the project in early 2021.
This paper presents the design methodology undertaken to meet the requirements for earthquake design and presents a novel defensive design solution to improve the reliability of the outlet works for post-earthquake operation. The Authors contend that utilising this approach in design of future outlet towers will provide a greater level of confidence in the ability to undertake intervening measures following a severe earthquake. Moreover, the technology has the potential to serve as a relatively inexpensive interim upgrade measure for existing outlet towers expected to sustain an unacceptable degree of damage under earthquake loading.
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Sedimentation of reservoirs is acknowledged as a global issue and likely impacts water storage capacity in Australia. This major challenge to our future water supply is a highly complex process with deposition leading to infilling of the reservoir of course sediments in headwaters following major inflows, progressively to finer fractions towards dam walls. Wave action and catchment inflows during drawdown conditions will further transport and redistribute sediments into the main body of the reservoir.
Managing reservoir sedimentation requires an understanding of the sediment types and deposition patterns across the reservoir. Once the location and type of sediment is known, strategies to mitigate the effects on the reservoir can be determined. Methods typically used for determining sedimentation of a reservoir are empirical or modeling techniques that rely on detailed data from inflow events, suspended solids loads and flow rates. In the absence of this data, more direct measurements to quantify the amount of sediment present can be used. Direct measurements are more robust than modelling approaches that utilise rating curves that can result in over estimations of the sediment present. This study combined several measurement techniques to produce high spatial coverage of the reservoir floor. Detailed validation of this approach was undertaken in one representative reservoir prior to adopting this approach across multiple reservoirs.
The ANCOLD Guidelines (2019) require that active and neotectonic faults which could significantly
contribute to the ground-shaking or ground-displacement hazard for a dam should be accounted for in seismic hazard assessments. While geological and geomorphological field investigations along suspected active fault structures are undertaken as a matter of course in New Zealand, this practice is relatively uncommon in Australia. Granted, rates of tectonic processes are greater in New Zealand than in intraplate Australia. However, moderate to large and damaging earthquakes are not uncommon in the Australian record; there have been ~26 earthquakes of magnitude >M6 in the last 150 years (~1 event every ~6 years) and similar events might be expected in the future. We present examples of investigations undertaken to better understand earthquake hazard for two faults – previous studies on the Wellington Fault, New Zealand, and new data from recent investigations of the Avonmore Scarp, southeast Australia. We report the results from these studies and discuss how the collection of similar data on faults proximal to Australian dams would allow dam owners and operators to better quantify seismic hazard and, thereby, more meaningfully comply with the ANCOLD guidelines.
Leslie Harrison Dam is located on Tingalpa Creek in the Redlands region, approximately 18 km southeast of Brisbane. It is classified as an extreme hazard category dam with a large population at risk only a short distance downstream.
The dam comprises a 25 m high zoned earthfill embankment, with a dry well concrete intake tower and an outlet conduit located at the base of the dam near the old river channel. The spillway has a 43 m wide concrete gravity ogee crest, with a concrete lined chute terminating in an energy dissipator structure.
Seqwater is undertaking a staged upgrade of Leslie Harrison Dam to address deficiencies identified during the Portfolio Risk Assessment (URS 2013) and Geotechnical Investigations (GHD 2016).
While the dam has met the water supply needs of the community for the past 50 years, the upgrade ensures local residents will be well served into the future. Additionally, the structure will meet the most up to date requirements of dam safety management and national industry standards.
Construction of the Stage 1 upgrade commenced in June 2018 and involved the removal and replacement of liquefiable material in the foundation, modernisation and extension of the outlet works, addition of a new downstream filter buttress to the embankment, and lastly, the installation of both active and passive anchors within the spillway ogee and lower chute floor.
As with any major project, the works involved a number of challenges that had to be addressed. This paper provides an insight into the key challenges encountered and how these were overcome by the design and construction teams using practical engineered solutions. The intent is to provide the reader with an account of the “lessons learned” during the construction phase, along with recommendations for future dam upgrades.
Identification of people impacted by a hypothetical dam-break flood is required to understand the potential hazard a dam poses to downstream communities. The New Zealand Dam Safety Guidelines and the Australian Consequence Categories for Dams define these people collectively as the “Population at Risk” (PAR) and recommend that evaluation of PAR should include both permanent and temporary populations. However, there is limited guidance on specific methods to determine these populations. This paper provides an outline of an evidence-based, repeatable method to determine the PAR (both permanent and temporary) within a dam-break flood inundation zone. The method is intended to provide guidance for people tasked with estimating PAR in accordance with the New Zealand Dam Safety Guidelines. The methodology provides a current practice framework for users to apply and estimate the PAR in a clear and defendable manner.
Prior to filling the Clyde Dam reservoir in 1992-93 large scale stabilisation works were undertaken on several pre-existing landslides along the reservoir margins. Monitoring and visual observations indicate that the landslides are behaving satisfactorily and have confirmed that the stability improvements undertaken have successfully offset the negative effects of the reservoir on the landslides.
This paper presents selected records detailing more than 25 years of landslide behaviour that demonstrate the effectiveness of the stabilisation works. Monitoring has been able to detect increasing water levels, drainage flow changes and, in some cases, deformation following periods of high rainfall.
However, the highly satisfactory performance of the landslides experienced to date does not allow complacency and although the surveillance monitoring has been progressively scaled back to a more focussed strategy, ongoing assessment and reviews will be required. The paper also briefly discusses the current challenges associated with changing personnel and aging instrumentation.