The evaluation of the maximum instantaneous uplift force produced by turbulent pressure fluctuations plays a key role in designing concrete slab protection in spillway chutes and stilling basins. Recent incidents involving damage to chute linings have highlighted the significance of this issue. To evaluate the stability of spillway stilling basin slabs, it is necessary to determine the statistical structure of the turbulent pressure fluctuations in the spillway chute and stilling basin. This can be defined by an extensive experimental work with a scale Physical Hydraulic Model (PHM). This exercise can be prohibitively expensive in terms of time and cost and it is proposed that the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in this application could become a cost effective alternative. A new approach using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) was applied to the case of a scale physical hydraulic model representing a real-world prototype and the results of the simulation were compared with the direct laboratory measurements. Here the forces and pressures acting on the slabs are evaluated using both CFD and physical hydraulic modelling results. In conclusion, some considerations on the design of slabs with unsealed joints are reported and discussed.
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While structures such as a dam walls, pipelines, gas storage tanks, and nuclear facilities are vulnerable to the shaking from earthquakes, they are even more susceptible to differential movement on faults passing beneath their foundations.
In the past, the probability of surface rupture of a fault was calculated by making some simplistic assumptions about the distribution of earthquake magnitudes. Improved databases of earthquake ground faulting now allow the probability of surface rupture to be estimated in a more realistic fashion. Computing software that uses a Monte Carlo approach has been developed to allow the effect of various scenario choices on rupture probability to be investigated.
Using this software, it is found that the most significant influence on rupture probability is the long-term fault slip-rate. Other assumptions about the faulting style, maximum magnitude and conversion parameters have only a moderate influence on the results.
There have been several instances in recent history in Australia of surface faulting due to earthquakes, but there has been only limited damage to infrastructure due to the remoteness of these earthquakes. The software that has been developed will allow a considered assessment and comparison of the hazard and risk due to both ground shaking from earthquakes and from surface rupture.
An assessment of dam failure consequence for Jandowae Water Supply Dam in South-West Queensland was performed using HEC-LifeSim. The purpose of the assessment was to investigate the applicability of the software to inform decisions on an appropriate regulatory pathway for the dam that reflects the consequences of failure. This paper details the development of the hydrologic and hydraulic models behind the HEC-LifeSim simulations, the assignment of key parameters and their sensitivities, and a comparison of predictions to existing procedures for assessing potential loss of life and populations at risk. The paper reflects upon the level of effort required to develop HEC-LifeSim assessments and the relative benefits gained using this information in the regulatory space.
Since publication in 2003, the ANCOLD Guidelines for Risk Assessment have reached broad acceptance and use in Australia. In practice, dam owners use the principles of risk assessment to drive business investment decisions. As the guidelines undergo revision, it is timely to assess whether our practices need to evolve to more holistically consider all types of consequences, rather than our current focus on loss of life, in decision-making. This paper aims to prompt dam owners and consultants alike to re-assess our focus on loss of life in risk assessment decision-making, and whether we should more meaningfully consider alternative or broader indicators.
An industry survey was undertaken which found that large dam owners are generally happy with the current system of dam safety decision making. However, the survey responses did identify difficulties in relation to justifying investment below the limit of tolerability that are subject to ALARP principles. In a small number of cases, dam owners found it difficult to justify investment when life safety was not important.
Building on the industry survey and subsequent discussions with practitioners, this paper discusses how the current approach to risk based decision making may result in sub optimal decision making. Further it is discussed how there is an important role that economics should play in providing a universally accepted framework for assessing trade-offs and providing consistent evidence to support decision making.
Installing a suite of appropriate instruments such as piezometers, settlement plates, extensometers, and inclinometers etc., in strategic locations to monitor the performance of an embankment built on soft soils is vital when there are major design uncertainties; the monitoring data can also be used to calibrate the design parameters. Questionable readings of pore water pressure (PWP) have been reported in various case studies involving the development of dams, embankment foundations and reclamation work in Australia and in South East Asia, especially in low-lying acid sulphate soil (ASS) floodplains. Despite having vertical drains (PVDs), excess pore water pressure readings from Vibrating Wire Piezometers (VWPs) do not always dissipate as fast as expected, especially after a certain period of time, typically a year. This paper describes the biological and geo-chemical factors affecting reliability of Vibrating Wire (VW) piezometers, filter-tip clogging, smearing of soil adjoining the filter, gas generation, chemical alteration or corrosion of the filter, as well as electro-osmotic effects and cavitation. To that end, several VW piezometers installed in ASS terrain were extracted after being in place for 1.5 years and the soil surrounding the tips was tested for iron related and sulphate reducing bacteria. It is found that sulphate reducing bacteria has medium to high aggressivity whereas iron related bacteria has very high aggressivity with the bacteria count exceeding 20,000. VWPs with ceramic/stainless steel filter tips installed in acidic ground with organic contents exceeding say 4-5% have shown impeded dissipation of excess pore water pressure after a year or so. Accordingly, it appears that this issue is likely in other types of piezometers fitted with such ceramic or stainless filters when installed in ASS soils. Further Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the piezometer filter is also ongoing at the University of Wollongong (UOW) laboratory to determine how ionic precipitation causes a VW piezometer to clog. In addition, several samples were collected from Victorian Dams and are being tested in University of Wollongong (UOW) laboratory to quantify the clogging effect in Dam practice when installed in ASS terrain.
Following the catastrophic failure of the bottom outlet conduits of the Massingir Dam, a rehabilitation project was launched involving the installation of steel liners and the rehabilitation of the hydromechanical equipment. This paper describes the testing of an emergency gates for possible use as a control gate to maintain supply to downstream water users. It further describes the innovative use of alternative access for concreting and other services, the use and benefits of self-compacting concrete for infill concreting between the steel liner and existing concrete and the programme and cost benefits of pressurising the steel conduit prior to concrete encasement.