Richard Herweynen, Suraj Neupane, Paul Southcott and Ashish B. Khanal
Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, is home to more than five million people. Three major rivers including the Bagmati run through the city of Kathmandu, providing the environmental and cultural lifelines for the civilisation and local people. High population growth in Kathmandu over the past 30years has put a serious environmental strain on the Bagmati River. Water is drawn from the Bagmati River for drinking, farming, industries and construction. Due to the lack of capacity in the current sewerage systems, untreated sewage is entering the river system, along with high quantities of rubbish. Although a holy river, the Bagmati River is highly degraded, with reduced flows, high pollution, and a fresh water ecosystem that is now destroyed.To revive the Bagmati River, the Government of Nepal with funding from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is undertaking the Bagmati River Basin Improvement Project (BRBIP). One of the sub-projects is the construction of a dam on the Nagmati River to store water during the monsoon period for environmental release during dry season.Since November 2015, Entura have been involved in the investigation and detailed design of the Nagmati Dam. Through a simple storage model, it was determined that 8.2Mm 3 of live storage was required to meet the environmental flow objectives. To achieve this storage a 95m high dam was required at the Nagmati site, with a concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD) determined to be the best option.This paper will present the development of this unique project, highlighting how a number of the challenges were addressed, leading to a sustainable project.
Dr Andy Hughes
On Hampstead Heath in Central London, just 3 kilometres from the centre of the city, there are more than 20 dams and reservoirs set within the landscape setting of Hampstead Heath. A number of dams were built in the 16th century and formed the original water supply to the City of London. They are set in a landscape laid out by the world renowned Humphrey Repton.Three of the embankments which are laid out in two chains of reservoirs across the Heath are subject to safety legislation in the UK. As such they were identified as being deficient in spillway capacity and thus fairly significant works were required to be carried out in this sensitive setting.The Heath is protected by the Hampstead Heath Act of 1870 which seeks to prevent significant changes to the Heath and thus it was quite clear that there would be opposition to any works on the Heath, even though they were required by law to protect persons and property downstream. In fact a significant lobby group formed which challenged the need for the works and also the legislation of the UK via a judicial review. This paper will describe the process by which significant stakeholder consultation was undertaken (costing more than £2M), the judicial review that took place in the Royal Courts of Justice, the option study and the major engineered elements carried out on the Heath.
Lisa J Neumann, Rod Westmore
In Australia construction of a new dam on a greenfield site is relatively uncommon and construction of a new dam on a brownfield site is even more unusual.This paper presents an innovative design solution to address the challenges associated with such a project.Ridge Park Dam is a new flood retarding dam located in a suburban recreation park, less than 10km south east of Adelaide, South Australia.The dam was constructed in 2014/15 and was designed to limit the peak flows in the creek downstream of the park under the 1 in 100 ARI event and to impound water as a component of the infrastructure required for the Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) scheme located in Ridge Park.The expectations of both the client and community and the technical issues encountered in the early stages of the project resulted in some unique design criteria. At the outset the client and community expectation was that the dam would improve the overall amenity of the park without impacting the existing vegetation or functionality of the park, including public access and safety.Identifying a dam type to suit the client and community expectations and address the technical issues was not straightforward.Typical dams types such as embankment dams, mass concrete gravity or concrete buttress structures, were found to be not suitable.A less typical, innovative solution was sought.The outcome was to construct a dam comprising a concrete core wall supported by rock filled gabion baskets.
James Stuart, Michael Hughes
Several recent rain events in Australia have resulted in impoundment flood levels where there was a surprising variability between the Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) of the flood level and that of the rainfall. The issue was highlighted during the Queensland Flood Commission of Inquiry (QFCI, 2011) by the Queensland Dam Safety Regulator who suggested there may be a problem with design hydrology after a dam safety event that saw impoundment levels of around 1:9000 AEP with a 1:200 AEP catchment rainfall at North Pine Dam, north of Brisbane in 2011. Wide disparities have occurred at Wivenhoe Dam west of Brisbane, at Callide Dam, west of Gladstone and at other locations.
This paper examines the Generalised Short Duration Method (GSDM) (BoM, 2003) and the Revised Generalised Tropical Storm Method (GTSMR) (BoM, 2003) typically used for dam flood capacity assessments in an attempt to explain the variability outlined above and whether it is, in part, exacerbated by the methods themselves.
It finds that processes of generalising rainfall depth, intensity, temporal and spatial characteristics are working together with adopted hydrological methods to contribute to such variability, that in the worst case could lead to PMF levels in dams with much less rainfall than the associated PMP would infer.
Moreover, two key assumptions; that of AEP neutrality (AEP of rainfall is equal to that of the flood) and frequency of PMP based on catchment area, which are the foundations stones of our understanding of flood frequency for large structures, are found to be untested or simply interim advice. This leads to the conclusion that the likelihood of floods in the range 2000 year AEP to PMF may continue to show surprising variability, potentially of an order of magnitude or more, compared to the rainfall AEP.
There is a need for a review of these methods and potentially provision of interim guidance as these methods are currently being used in dam upgrade programs throughout Australia and are also the basis for emergency planning. The identification of these issues concerns current methods and are independent to any discussion on climate change.Prior to commencing, it is worth defining two terms that re-occur throughout the document:
Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP): The probability that a given rainfall total accumulated over a given duration will be exceeded in any one year. AEP Neutrality is the theory that assumes the probability of the rainfall can be transferred to the resulting flood.
Average Variability Method (AVM): Technique for estimating design temporal pattern of average variability to ensure AEP Neutrality in transition from PMP to PMP design flood
Paul Southcott,Suraj Neupane and David Krushka
TasWater owns and operates the water supply in Queenstown on the west coast of Tasmania. Anew water treatment plant was constructed downstream from one of the seven small dams that made up the original supply system, making the remaining six dams redundant.Two of these dams hada very high annual probability of failure and unacceptable societal life and financial risk due to their poor condition.Both dams required urgent attention (upgrade) to retain them as a lasting asset and legacy for the community or decommissioning to create a new ecological legacy.Roaring Meg Dam (6m high with a 9ML capacity) was constructed on Roaring Meg Creek around 1963. The Cutten Street Dam No 3 (10m high with a 2.4ML capacity) was constructed on Reservoir Creek around 1902to supply water to a growing mining community and had been in use since then. From a heritage perspective, the dam had some value as a timber crib and rockfill dam and its historical context as a key factor in the development of the town.There is limited guidance in the ANCOLD (2003) Dam Safety Management Guidelines on decommissioning and a process had to be developed in cooperation with the Regulator in this relatively new area of dam engineering. Detailed design of the decommissioning including diversion work during decommissioning, channel design to align with the original creek to help restore its ecological function and rehabilitation work on the exposed reservoir soils to stabilise them were undertaken. Aboriginal and historic heritage studies, flora & fauna studies and fluvio-geomorphological study at the dam sites were also undertaken to ensure that the decommissioning work did not interfere with the heritage, threatened species and riparian processes. The community were consulted to ensure acceptance of the changes to their town. Dam safety emergency management plans for the decommissioning of these dams was were also prepared. A significant issue in the decommissioning work was frequent and high rainfall due to the location of these dams on the west coast of Tasmania. The entire dam removal work had to be planned within the window of dry weather or very little rainfall. This paper presents the process, activities and lessons learned in successfully decommissioning these dams,to eliminate the unacceptably high risks posed by these dams and to restore the normal riparian processes.The general approach adopted for this project has applicability for other damsandis proposed as a starting point for an ANCOLD practice note in this area
Andrew Balme, Dan Forster, Tim Logan
The MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake on 14 November 2016, ruptured over 20 faults during the initial shaking,which lasted nearly two minutes. A complex series of fault ruptures propagated northeast for nearly 180 km from the initial rupture location. Instrumentation from dams across New Zealand shows that whilst most dams did not suffer physical damage, piezometric responses were measured in dams and their foundations. Earthquake related changes in seepage regimes are not unusual and depend on the characteristics of the ground motions,and site specific characteristics that influence how a dam and its foundation respond to ground motions. The ability to measure a piezometric response in a dam or foundation is heavily influenced by the instrumentation network and method of monitoring. Data collected during events such as the Kaikōura earthquake provides valuable information for both characterising performance of a dam during the event, and assisting future analysis such as failure mode assessments. Careful consideration must be given to the scope of installed instrumentation and the frequency of monitoring in order to provide these benefits,and the robustness of the system to ensure it adequately survives the event.