Peter Woodman, Andrew Northfield, Hench Wang
Current empirical approaches assume different fatality factors for the ‘fail’ and ‘no fail’ scenarios even when the same hazard is experienced by a property. This approach can lead to some inconsistencies particularly for small dams and retarding basins. This paper looks at the base data behind the current fatality factors and explores possible alternatives to the current approach. The paper will rely on a number of examples from a recent investigation undertaken by GHD for Melbourne Water on a number of their retarding basins.
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Mohammad Okhovat, Viculp Lal, Neil Sutherland
The precast, prestressed concrete penstocks at Meridian Energy’s Benmore power station in New Zealand have attracted attention since construction about 50 years ago because of their unusual design. They are listed as the world’s first prestressed penstocks. However, their seismic capacity has been determined to be insufficient when measured against Meridian’s current asset management objectives aimed at avoiding significant damage to generating assets in a 1:2,500 year AEP earthquake. The deficiency is mainly due to the relatively narrow base width of the penstocks.
In this study, a series of linear analyses was performed to obtain an improved understanding of seismic behaviour of the penstocks. Various strengthening solutions are under consideration for the penstocks to meet the acceptance criteria. Additionally, nonlinear analysis of the penstocks was carried out to investigate the use of seismic damping devices fitted to the penstocks, similar to damping applications in seismic response control of buildings and bridges.
Amanda Ament, Thomas Ewing, Frank Nitzsche
The automatic operating buoyancy type spillway gates at Lenthall Dam did not operate properly since installation. This paper discusses the problems encountered, the investigation conducted using computational fluid dynamics to quantify the problems and develop solutions. It describes the design of the modifications to the gate and flow regime and results after construction.
BJ Rochecouste Collet, PC Blersch, AL Olivier
The paper shows how multidisciplinary engineering can create future-proofed solutions for dam management and how innovation is bringing those advancements to life. It includes the retrofitting of a small hydropower station to an existing dam structure, enhancing the use of the dam. The paper also reveals design, technical and project finance considerations underpinning the multi-disciplinary services.
Water supply in South Africa’s economic hub of Gauteng journeys from the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) through three river systems that converge in to the Vaal Dam from which the water is treated and pumped for domestic usage. One of those systems delivers water originating in Lesotho to discharge into the Ash River. The Ash River was, by origin, a small river with an environmental reserve flow of 50 l/s. However, with the LHWP significantly adding flow, the annual average increased to 24,500 l/s (24.5 m3/s) and is set to increase further with future phases of the scheme. To mitigate significant erosion caused by the greatly increased flow, several structures were erected along the river, including the Botterkloof Dam. Whilst the energy was dissipated in the dam’s spillway, a private developer studied if the water could be used for energy generation. The river also offered some rapids some 1.6 km downstream, which also showed potential for hydropower generation. An option to combine the two sites was also considered.
Aurecon conducted the feasibility study in 2010 for both sites, including the combined option, which concluded that there would be significant benefits in the implementation the projects in two separate schemes. This boasted many advantages including reduced capital investment, reduced social impact (canoeist), reduced geotechnical risks, and lesser land acquisition leading to a better return on investment. Aurecon are currently providing engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) services for the entire project. Construction of the 4.4 MW hydropower station commenced construction in September 2014 and was commissioned ahead of time and under budget.
The founding conditions under the proposed hydropower station location, comprising interbedded sandstone and mudstone was fairly poor with the mudstone effectively decomposing in less than two days. The Botterkloof dam was build on a thick layer of sandstone which dips quite steeply towards the right bank. The right bank on the other hand comprises an old paleo channel. The Boston A dam, located on the left bank immediately adjacent to the Botterkloof Dam, is founded on the weather mudstone and the spillway is grass lined. The power station construction was constructed in the narrow space in between the two existing dams – the Botterkloof Dam (owned by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), Government of South Africa) and the adjacent privately-owned Boston A Dam. Permission had to be obtained from the respective owners and all regulatory permits approved before the project could be submitted to the South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Programme (REIPPP) implemented by the Department of Energy (DoE) of the South African Government.
Another significant challenge in the construction itself included the need for deep excavations through the left embankment of the Botterkloof Dam and adjacent to the spillway stilling basin whilst such construction needed to be done without affecting operations and stability of either of the two dams.
The solution was a shallow intake, followed by a cut and cover concrete penstock leading to a compact hydropower station housing a single 4.4 MW vertical “Compact Axial Turbine” Kaplan turbine ending in the tailrace, which was rotated at 90 degrees.
An analytical approach is presented to calculate the pull-out probability of failure of concrete lining of
plunge pools. The concrete lining is aimed to protect the plunge pool against scour where a scour hole may
endanger the stability of the dam foundation. Uplift and pressure loading of the jet are major actions on
the concrete lining. Ground anchors are used to stabilise the lining against these actions and the governing
mode of failure is the pull-out (tensile failure) of these anchors. While the anchoring design for static uplift
is straightforward, dynamic jet action introduces remarkable complexity into the design. The adopted
methodology is based on a stochastic modelling of the high velocity jet action. A bi-linear power spectral
density function is assumed based on the laboratory measurements on the scale physical models done by
the others. This loading mainly reflects the turbulent pressure fluctuations where the jet impacts the plunge
pool floor. Response of the lining, idealised as a single degree of freedom, is calculated by the random
vibration procedures which provides the most realistic structural analysis methodology. It is assumed the
lining is impervious and hence no dynamic under-pressure is developed. The analysis results provide a
probabilistic description of the anchor tensile force which enables the designer to compute the probability
of failure of the anchors knowing their ultimate strength.
Sean Ladiges, Robert Wark, Richard Rodd
The use of permanent, load-monitorable post-tensioned, anchors for dam projects has been in place for approximately 35 years in Australia. Since then, over 30 large Australian dams have been strengthened using this technology, including the world record for anchor length (142 m – Canning Dam, WA) and size (91×15.7 mm strands – Wellington Dam, WA and Catugunya Dam, TAS).
In order to achieve the design life of 100 years expected of these anchors, an ongoing program of monitoring, testing and maintenance is required, to identify and rectify the initiation of corrosion or loss of pre-stress. Guidance for maintenance and testing regime for post-tensioned anchors in dams is provided in the ANCOLD Guidelines on Dam Safety Management (2003). The various conditions which may affect the performance of the anchor with time, such as anchor type, ground condition and loading fluctuations are not covered in the Guideline.
This paper reviews the implementation and results of anchor monitoring programs by Australian dam owners. The first part of this paper provides a summary of the testing and monitoring programs currently being implemented. The second part of the paper reviews the aggregated anchor load test results from a number of Australian dam owners, and identifies trends in anchor response over time following installation.
The paper aims to assess whether the recommended anchor testing regime proposed in ANCOLD (2003) is appropriate and cost effective, using evidence from recent load test data which has become available following the writing of the guideline. The lessons learnt from anchor maintenance programs will also be discussed.