Robert Shelton, Jako Abrie, Matt Wansbone
The Mahinerangi dam – arguably the most valuable in Trustpower’s portfolio of 47 large dams – is over 80 years old and needs a plan of work to confirm it meets current design standards.
The dam was completed in 1931, subsequently raised in 1944-1946, and strengthened with steel tendon anchors in 1961.
A comprehensive safety review (CSR) in 2007 noted a potential deficiency in the fully grouted anchors and a program of work commenced to re-evaluate the overall stability of the dam.
A potential failure mode assessment revealed that the dam may need upgrading to meet the criteria for maximum design earthquake (MDE). Areas of uncertainty were identified and a significant programme of survey, geological mapping, concrete testing and site specific seismic assessments have been carried out to reduce risk and uncertainty in design.
The paper discusses the dam’s history, current condition, and describes the ongoing programme of work planned to extend the life of the dam for another 80+ years.
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Peter Woodman, Andrew Northfield, Tim Kallady
Currently there is little guidance available on how itinerants on roads should be included in a consequence assessment. The methods available are often subjective which can lead to itinerants on roads either being ignored or insufficiently considered. A fact that can in turn lead to consequence categories being inappropriately assigned to the asset being assessed or risks being under or over estimated. Consideration of these itinerants is especially important for smaller dams or retarding basins in urban areas where often the Potential Loss of Life (PLL) in buildings is small but there are major roads carrying a large Population At Risk (PAR) through the inundation extent, which experience flooding of sufficient severity to pose a threat to life.
This paper looks at how the method used to assess itinerants on roads can affect the consequence category assigned to an asset and/or the risk of the dam or retarding basin. It will draw on a number of recent assessments undertaken for retarding basins within Melbourne and make comment on a possible approach to consider itinerants on roads in the future.
This paper will present the use of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) as a means of evaluating the causes for failure modes and is based on work completed for an upstream tailings storage facility (TSF) raise where significant transverse and longitudinal cracking was observed.
The design of the TSF was based on the use of a starter wall with perimeter discharge from spigots spaced at about 25 m centres along the upstream crest. The TSF was raised using an upstream design and during routine inspections two years after completion of the raise, transverse cracks of up to 30 mm were noted on the crest and longitudinal cracks up to 40 mm width were noted on the downstream slope of the raised embankments. Concerns were raised over the extent and depth of the transverse cracking and the risks they pose to piping, seepage and containment.
Field investigations including test pitting and material testing were completed to evaluate the depth and extent of the cracking. The findings from field investigations, together with a review of the historical aerial photographs and superposition of the cracks and the locations of the spigots were then used in a Root Cause Analysis workshop.
Discussions on all causes for the cracking, asking the question “why did the problem occur?”, and then continuing to ask “why that happened?” until the fundamental process element that failed was reached”.
During the workshop, the most significant contributors for the transverse and longitudinal cracking and the likely location, extent and size of the cracks were evaluated. This identified the potential for traditional structural hog and sag bending moments causing the transverse crest cracking with the potential for transverse cracking at the interface of the raise and the original tailings. This was not previously identified as a potential piping location. The longitudinal cracking was considered to be mainly owing to settlement of the upstream tailings.
Peter Foster, Bob Wark, David Ryan, John Richardson
Fairbairn Dam is a zoned embankment dam completed in 1972 and located in central Queensland near the town of Emerald. The spillway, which is located toward the left abutment, consists of a 168 metres wide concrete ogee crest, converging concrete chute and dissipater basin. The overall length from the ogee to the downstream end of the concrete spillway is approximately 195 m. The chute and dissipater basin are underlain by a matrix of longitudinal and transverse drains for pressure relief of the anchored concrete slabs.
Minor repairs to damaged chute slabs were undertaken following the 2011 flood event. During these rectification works, large voids up to 0.3 metre in depth were found under sections of the concrete chute slabs as well as damage and blockage to the sub-surface drainage system. Discoloured water was also observed discharging from sections of the sub-surface drainage system. Some of the 24 mm diameter bars designed to anchor the slabs to the foundation were found to have corroded at the concrete/foundation interface and subsequent pull-out tests showed that the anchors had minimal or no structural capacity.
These investigations led to a review of the hydraulic design of the spillway, upgrade to the sub-surface drainage system and apron slabs, and installation of replacement anchor bars. An understanding of the transmission of pressures and dynamic pressure coefficients resulting from spillway discharge and the effects of the hydraulic jump was an essential component of the design for the new anchor and drainage system.
This paper provides detail on the investigations undertaken, the hydraulic modelling that is underway including physical hydraulic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design approach for what is described in this paper as the Stage 1 component of works.
Kristen Sih, Richard Rodd
Melbourne Water currently manages over 235 stormwater retarding basins. The process of assessing the risk posed by these assets began in 2006, and at the end of 2015 full risk assessments were completed for around 30 of the basins that were estimated to pose the highest societal risk. However, when analysing the results of these risk assessments, there was some concern that the results were inconsistent and often too conservative, given the few incipient or actual failures that had been experienced.
It was found that one of the key areas causing the conservatism was poor documentation of design and construction details, and the fact that the tools used for assessing the Potential Loss of Life (PLL) were aimed at larger storages that cause much higher depths and velocities in dambreak events than these (generally) small storages. To remedy this situation, advice was sought from specialist practitioners to develop guidance notes on the assessment of PLL and failure likelihoods for retarding basins.
On the back of these guidance notes, Melbourne Water initiated an accelerated program of assessing the risk associated with 78 retarding basins over a 6 month period. This paper describes the key recommendations from the guidance notes, compares the results of the risk assessments performed pre- and post-guidance notes and provides a summary of the portfolio risk assessment outcomes, what they mean for Melbourne Water and what the organisation intends to do to manage this risk into the future.
Woodrow Lee Fields
Although flooding can lead to many types of severe consequences, the primary objective of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) dam and levee safety programs are to manage risk to the public who rely on those structures to keep them reasonably safe from flooding. Thus, reducing the risk associated with loss of life is paramount. This paper discusses new methods that have been developed for estimating life loss with uncertainty from flood events.
HEC-LifeSim is a dynamic simulation system for estimating life loss with the fundamental intent to simulate population redistribution during an evacuation in conjunction with flood wave propagation. The population redistribution process has been revised from the ground up as an agent based model. In addition to the agent based model, uncertainty analysis has been enhanced. Through Monte Carlo sampling, the natural variability of warning and mobilization timing and likelihood of fatality varies delivering a range of potential life loss from a hazard. Knowledge uncertainty about parameters, such as warning issuance time, can also be defined. To accommodate the new HEC-LifeSim computation engine, an innovative GIS interface has been developed to quickly summarize and animate results. The methods that are discussed in the following provide new tools to estimate life loss and educate local authorities.