David Piccolo, Gareth Swarbrick, Garry Mostyn, Bruce Hutchison, Rodd Brinkmann
Hillgrove Resources owns and operates Kanmantoo copper mine some 44 km southeast of Adelaide.
An important feature of the mine is its tailings storage facility (TSF) which is fully lined with HDPE, and double lined at the base, fully under drained, has a secondary underdrainage system for leak detection and a multi-staged centralised decant system. This onerous design of the TSF was developed in consultation with DMITRE between 2007 and 2010 amid concerns of groundwater protection and effective water management.
The Authors were approached in 2010, following construction of the initial stage of the TSF, and charged with developing the design to increase storage from 13 to 20 million tonnes, as well as optimising the design and construction of future stages.
This paper presents the more interesting aspects of the design and construction optimisation between 2010 and 2016 including:
The design and construction approaches have been scrutinised and accepted by regulatory authorities, and implemented by the mine operator over a period of 6 years. The paper includes lessons learnt during the implementation process.
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Peter Foster, Bob Wark, David Ryan, John Richardson
Fairbairn Dam is a zoned embankment dam completed in 1972 and located in central Queensland near the town of Emerald. The spillway, which is located toward the left abutment, consists of a 168 metres wide concrete ogee crest, converging concrete chute and dissipater basin. The overall length from the ogee to the downstream end of the concrete spillway is approximately 195 m. The chute and dissipater basin are underlain by a matrix of longitudinal and transverse drains for pressure relief of the anchored concrete slabs.
Minor repairs to damaged chute slabs were undertaken following the 2011 flood event. During these rectification works, large voids up to 0.3 metre in depth were found under sections of the concrete chute slabs as well as damage and blockage to the sub-surface drainage system. Discoloured water was also observed discharging from sections of the sub-surface drainage system. Some of the 24 mm diameter bars designed to anchor the slabs to the foundation were found to have corroded at the concrete/foundation interface and subsequent pull-out tests showed that the anchors had minimal or no structural capacity.
These investigations led to a review of the hydraulic design of the spillway, upgrade to the sub-surface drainage system and apron slabs, and installation of replacement anchor bars. An understanding of the transmission of pressures and dynamic pressure coefficients resulting from spillway discharge and the effects of the hydraulic jump was an essential component of the design for the new anchor and drainage system.
This paper provides detail on the investigations undertaken, the hydraulic modelling that is underway including physical hydraulic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design approach for what is described in this paper as the Stage 1 component of works.
Peter Buchanan, Malcolm Barker, Paul Maisano, Marius Jonker
Kangaroo Creek Dam located on the Torrens River, approximately 22 km north east of Adelaide, is currently undergoing a major upgrade to address a number of deficiencies, including increasing flood capacity and reducing its vulnerability to major seismic loading.
Originally constructed in the 1960s and raised in 1983, recent reviews have indicated that the dam does not meet modern standards for an extreme consequence category dam.
The original dam was generally constructed from the rock won from the spillway excavation. This rock was quite variable in quality and strength and contained significant portions of low strength schist, which broke down when compacted by the rollers. The nature of this material in places is very fine with characteristics more akin to soil than rock. Review of this material suggests that large seepage flows (say following a major seismic event and rupture of the upstream face slab) could lead to extensive migration of the finer material and possible failure of the embankment. However, it is also envisaged that the zones of coarser material could behave as a rockfill and therefore transmit large seepage flows, which may result in unravelling of the downstream face leading to instability.
This paper addresses the design of the embankment raising and stabilising providing suitable protection against both these possible failure scenarios, which tend to lead to competing solutions. The final solution required the embankment to be considered both as a CFRD and a zoned earth and rockfill embankment.
The SRC operated seismic network is one of the largest privately owned and operated seismic networks in the world. Importantly it bridges the situation awareness gap between the information often provided by national seismic networks, of earthquake magnitude and location, and the emergency response managers questions of “What effects will this event have on my assets?” together with “What should we now be doing to mitigate the event?”
Software development of the Quick Quake app and improved automation of PDF report generation means that detailed, bespoke client specific earthquake response reports that incorporate asset earthquake resistance and failure consequence aspects can be produced by duty seismologists within reduced timeframes.
Preliminary earthquake locations computed by the SRC operated network for the two ML 4.7 Korumburra events in March 2009 and the ML 5.6 Moe earthquake of June 2012 were significantly closer to the final computed locations than those published by any other authority. The network additionally provides bonus outcomes of highly accurate detailed seismic activity maps that reduce uncertainties for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHAs) and attenuation data that will be used to develop regional specific ground motion models.
Jamie Cowan, Chris Kelly and Gavan Hunter
Dam safety upgrade works were undertaken at Tullaroop Dam in 2015/16 to reduce the risk of piping through the main embankment. Unexpected cracking and elevated pore water pressures were observed within this earthfill embankment over a period of 10 to 15 years. In 2005/06 a filter and rockfill buttress local to the embankment was constructed on the left abutment after a 60 mm wide diagonal crack opened up on the downstream shoulder from crest to toe.
Similar to the 2005/06 upgrade works, the 2015/16 embankment works were direct managed by Goulburn-Murray Water. Filter and rockfill materials were sourced from commercial quarries previously used for dam upgrade projects and for which significant testing of materials had been undertaken, especially on the fine filter.
Mid project it became clear that the fine filter was breaking down under handling and compaction such that several in-bank gradings fell outside the specified fine limit. Further testing of quarry surge piles, site stockpiles and in-bank placed filters was undertaken to understand the extent of the breakdown. It was assessed that the breakdown was occurring on the 0.5 to 2.0 mm fraction, generating finer sizes in the 0.1 to 0.6 mm fraction. The increase in fines content (minus 75 micron) was less than 1% and met specification. The in-bank material was accepted as placed and the specified filter envelope adjusted to allow for the observed breakdown.
Difficulties were experienced with compaction of the fine filter in the inclined chimney filter to achieve the target density in the range 65% to 80% Density Index when the layer width reduced to 0.75 m for a 0.5 m compacted lift thickness. No difficulties were experienced when the layer width was 1.5 m or in trenches. Further trials were undertaken on the embankment to better understand the compaction issues and used different roller types. It was assessed that an important factor was the arching effect of the adjacent coarse filter. Going forward thinner lifts were used and smaller width rollers to achieve the specified minimum density.
The paper provides details on the embankment construction works, focusing on the fine filter breakdown and compaction issues. Details of the testing undertaken, the actions to resolve the issues and interactions with the supply quarry and construction team are provided.
Russell Mills PhD,Rebecca Freeman, Malcolm Barker
The global mining industry lives with the risk of catastrophic events such as water storage or tailings dam failures as part of its daily operations, and has developed a number of approaches to enable mine management to understand the nature of the risks and the ways in which they are being managed. One such approach involves the use of bowties for the understanding of the hazards and risks. Building from bowties, the second approach involves the selection and management of controls critical to the prevention or mitigation of the catastrophic event. The Australian mining industry is a world leader in this regard and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate how bowties are constructed, how risks can be semi-quantitatively estimated, how critical controls are selected and managed, and how, if all this is done well, risks can be demonstrated to be as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).
This paper sets out key themes and presents an example for a tailings dam failure to illustrate the role of bowties and critical controls in management of catastrophic events. It will also highlight the role of bowties in the anticipated introduction of a Safety Case approach to dam risk management. Bowties provide a useful tool for the transfer of risk management knowledge from the designer, to allow dam owner / operators to better understand their risks and to recognise the link between design and operational controls and how they are used to manage those risks to ALARP.