David Piccolo, Gareth Swarbrick, Garry Mostyn, Bruce Hutchison, Rodd Brinkmann
Hillgrove Resources owns and operates Kanmantoo copper mine some 44 km southeast of Adelaide.
An important feature of the mine is its tailings storage facility (TSF) which is fully lined with HDPE, and double lined at the base, fully under drained, has a secondary underdrainage system for leak detection and a multi-staged centralised decant system. This onerous design of the TSF was developed in consultation with DMITRE between 2007 and 2010 amid concerns of groundwater protection and effective water management.
The Authors were approached in 2010, following construction of the initial stage of the TSF, and charged with developing the design to increase storage from 13 to 20 million tonnes, as well as optimising the design and construction of future stages.
This paper presents the more interesting aspects of the design and construction optimisation between 2010 and 2016 including:
The design and construction approaches have been scrutinised and accepted by regulatory authorities, and implemented by the mine operator over a period of 6 years. The paper includes lessons learnt during the implementation process.
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An analytical approach is presented to calculate the pull-out probability of failure of concrete lining of
plunge pools. The concrete lining is aimed to protect the plunge pool against scour where a scour hole may
endanger the stability of the dam foundation. Uplift and pressure loading of the jet are major actions on
the concrete lining. Ground anchors are used to stabilise the lining against these actions and the governing
mode of failure is the pull-out (tensile failure) of these anchors. While the anchoring design for static uplift
is straightforward, dynamic jet action introduces remarkable complexity into the design. The adopted
methodology is based on a stochastic modelling of the high velocity jet action. A bi-linear power spectral
density function is assumed based on the laboratory measurements on the scale physical models done by
the others. This loading mainly reflects the turbulent pressure fluctuations where the jet impacts the plunge
pool floor. Response of the lining, idealised as a single degree of freedom, is calculated by the random
vibration procedures which provides the most realistic structural analysis methodology. It is assumed the
lining is impervious and hence no dynamic under-pressure is developed. The analysis results provide a
probabilistic description of the anchor tensile force which enables the designer to compute the probability
of failure of the anchors knowing their ultimate strength.
This paper reviews methods used to estimate the MCE in Australia and New Zealand. In the ICOLD (2016), NZSOLD (2015) and proposed ANCOLD (2016) guidelines, the deterministic approach is applicable only to fault sources, whereas the probabilistic approach is applicable to both fault sources and distributed earthquake sources. Although ICOLD (2016) states that the use of a deterministic approach to develop the SEE “may be more appropriate in locations with relatively frequent earthquakes that occur on well- identified sources, for example near plate boundaries,” the proposed ANCOLD (2016) guidelines retain the use of the deterministic approach for critical active faults which show evidence of movements in Holocene time (i.e. in the last 11,000 years), or large faults which show evidence of movements in Latest Pleistocene time (i.e. between 11,000 and 35,000 years ago). In Australia, active faults make a significant contribution to the probabilistic MCE only at near-fault sites, and even in those cases most of the hazard comes from distributed earthquake sources. However, some sites may be close enough to nearby or even more distant identified active faults that a Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) produces MCE ground motions that are far larger than those obtained probabilistically even for very long return periods. Conversely, the deterministically defined MCE may be lower than the probabilistically defined MCE for very long return periods at near fault sites in New Zealand, requiring the probabilistic approach.
Sean Ladiges, Robert Wark, Richard Rodd
The use of permanent, load-monitorable post-tensioned, anchors for dam projects has been in place for approximately 35 years in Australia. Since then, over 30 large Australian dams have been strengthened using this technology, including the world record for anchor length (142 m – Canning Dam, WA) and size (91×15.7 mm strands – Wellington Dam, WA and Catugunya Dam, TAS).
In order to achieve the design life of 100 years expected of these anchors, an ongoing program of monitoring, testing and maintenance is required, to identify and rectify the initiation of corrosion or loss of pre-stress. Guidance for maintenance and testing regime for post-tensioned anchors in dams is provided in the ANCOLD Guidelines on Dam Safety Management (2003). The various conditions which may affect the performance of the anchor with time, such as anchor type, ground condition and loading fluctuations are not covered in the Guideline.
This paper reviews the implementation and results of anchor monitoring programs by Australian dam owners. The first part of this paper provides a summary of the testing and monitoring programs currently being implemented. The second part of the paper reviews the aggregated anchor load test results from a number of Australian dam owners, and identifies trends in anchor response over time following installation.
The paper aims to assess whether the recommended anchor testing regime proposed in ANCOLD (2003) is appropriate and cost effective, using evidence from recent load test data which has become available following the writing of the guideline. The lessons learnt from anchor maintenance programs will also be discussed.
Paradise Dam is located on the Burnett River 20 km northwest of the town of Biggenden in Queensland. It is a gravity dam with a height of 37 metres and a total capacity of 300,000 ML. It was primarily constructed to service local agriculture.
The dam features a complex outlet works contained within a tightly constrained footprint. It provides for irrigation releases, fish passage and power generation. Additionally, the outlet is required to pass very high environmental flows of up to 270 m3/s.
The dam was subjected to major flooding in 2013 resulting in significant damage to the mechanical equipment associated with the outlet works, and severe scour downstream of the spillway.
Since construction, the operating range for the environmental outlet has been restricted. A rough operating zone has been identified through which the gates are quickly moved through. It is believed to be caused by the dynamics of the gates and the upstream conduit arrangement. Failure of the downstream stainless steel liner associated with the conduit has also occurred. The environmental outlet lacks the ability to be isolated from the storage, complicating the maintenance / modification of the gates. At the time of design, it was agreed by the alliance partners that major maintenance of the gate would be planned for when the reservoir was low, being below the intake bellmouth.
The irrigation release valves suffer from high vibration levels during operation. Component failure and severe corrosion have also been experienced.
This paper details:
Operational and maintenance experiences and restrictions since commencing operation including the impact of flooding;
Investigation and testing of environmental gate dynamics and the impact of these on the intake tower;
Failure of the environmental conduit liner, investigation and proposed rectification;
Proposed method to enable servicing of environmental gates without the use of a bulkhead and without draining the storage;
Proposed enhancements to irrigation valves to reduce vibration and extend service life.
Mark Arnold, Gavan Hunter and Mark Foster
Following the dam safety risk assessment for Greenvale Dam in 2008, Melbourne Water implemented a 3.0 m reservoir level restriction on the operation of the storage as an interim risk reduction measure. The 3.0 m restriction coincided with the ‘as constructed’ top of the chimney filter in the main embankment. This interim action reduced the dam safety risk to below the ANCOLD limit of tolerability.
Dam safety upgrade works were undertaken in 2014/15 to bring the dam in-line with current risk based guidelines and to enable the removal of the interim reservoir restriction, bringing the storage back to full operating capacity. Greenvale Dam was required to remain operational throughout the works and this required careful consideration of the dam safety risk during construction.
Deep excavations were required within the crest and downstream shoulder of the embankments, that,, without adequate management, had the potential to increase risk to the downstream population. Excavations up to 18 m depth were required into the wing embankments for construction of full height filters from foundation to crest, excavations up to 7 m deep were required in the main embankment to expose and connect into the existing filters and secant filter piles up to 13 m deep were used to connect the new chimney filter of the wing embankments with the original chimney filter of the main embankment.
A key element of the design and construction of the upgrade works was managing dam safety during construction. Dam safety considerations included (i) design based decisions to manage the level of exposure; (ii) implementation of further restrictions on reservoir level by the owner Melbourne Water; (iii) construction methods to manage exposure; (iv) an elevated surveillance regime during the works and (v) emergency preparation measures including emergency stockpiles and 24 hour emergency standby crew. The construction based dam safety requirements were focused on early detection and early intervention, and were managed via the project specific Dam Safety Management Plan.
This paper focuses on dam safety management including the decisions made, actions taken and construction requirements and touches on how these relate to the key project features.