The SRC operated seismic network is one of the largest privately owned and operated seismic networks in the world. Importantly it bridges the situation awareness gap between the information often provided by national seismic networks, of earthquake magnitude and location, and the emergency response managers questions of “What effects will this event have on my assets?” together with “What should we now be doing to mitigate the event?”
Software development of the Quick Quake app and improved automation of PDF report generation means that detailed, bespoke client specific earthquake response reports that incorporate asset earthquake resistance and failure consequence aspects can be produced by duty seismologists within reduced timeframes.
Preliminary earthquake locations computed by the SRC operated network for the two ML 4.7 Korumburra events in March 2009 and the ML 5.6 Moe earthquake of June 2012 were significantly closer to the final computed locations than those published by any other authority. The network additionally provides bonus outcomes of highly accurate detailed seismic activity maps that reduce uncertainties for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHAs) and attenuation data that will be used to develop regional specific ground motion models.
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J.H.Green, C.Beesley, C.The, S.Podgerand, A.Frost
The ability to estimate design rainfalls for probabilities rarer than 100 years or 1% Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) is an essential part of dam hydrology. The earliest means of estimating rare events consisted of a pragmatic curve fitting procedure between the 50 and 100 year design rainfalls and the Probable Maximum Precipitation. In the 1990s a more rigorous method of estimating design rainfalls as rare as 2000 years was developed – the Cooperative Research Centre – FOcussed Rainfall Growth Estimation (CRC-FORGE) method. CRC-FORGE estimates were derived for Victoria in 1997 followed progressively by each of the other states. Over the subsequent two decades CRC-FORGE estimates were an integral part of the risk assessment of large dams – being used to determine the AEP of the Dam Crest Flood.
The Bureau of Meteorology will soon release new rare design rainfall estimates for probabilities to 2000 years. The new rare design rainfalls are a significant improvement on the CRC-FORGE estimates as they have been derived using up to date data; contemporary analytical techniques and a method that is consistent across Australia.
However, there are differences between the CRC-FORGE estimates and the new rare design rainfalls. These differences do not constitute a systematic change to the CRC-FORGE estimates but rather vary with location; duration and probability. The results of a detailed comparison between the CRC-FORGE estimates and the new rare design rainfalls are presented together will an assessment of the possible impacts on previous estimates of the AEP of the Dam Crest Flood.
This paper describes the unique characteristics of near-fault ground motions for use in developing ground motions for the design and evaluation of dams that are located close to identified active faults. These characteristics include near-fault rupture directivity effects, permanent ground displacements, and hanging wall effects. In Australia, active faults make a significant contribution to the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) only at near-fault sites when Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is used. However, some sites may be close enough to nearby or even more distant identified active faults that a Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) produces MCE ground motions that are for larger than those obtained using a probabilistic approach even for very long return periods. Knowledge of the unique characteristics of near-fault ground motions should be applied to the development of ground motions for the design and evaluation of dams that are located close to identified active faults.
Woodrow Lee Fields
Although flooding can lead to many types of severe consequences, the primary objective of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) dam and levee safety programs are to manage risk to the public who rely on those structures to keep them reasonably safe from flooding. Thus, reducing the risk associated with loss of life is paramount. This paper discusses new methods that have been developed for estimating life loss with uncertainty from flood events.
HEC-LifeSim is a dynamic simulation system for estimating life loss with the fundamental intent to simulate population redistribution during an evacuation in conjunction with flood wave propagation. The population redistribution process has been revised from the ground up as an agent based model. In addition to the agent based model, uncertainty analysis has been enhanced. Through Monte Carlo sampling, the natural variability of warning and mobilization timing and likelihood of fatality varies delivering a range of potential life loss from a hazard. Knowledge uncertainty about parameters, such as warning issuance time, can also be defined. To accommodate the new HEC-LifeSim computation engine, an innovative GIS interface has been developed to quickly summarize and animate results. The methods that are discussed in the following provide new tools to estimate life loss and educate local authorities.
The key differences between probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA, preferably referred to as a scenario-based analysis) are that, unlike DSHA, PSHA takes account of all magnitudes on all earthquake sources that may affect the site, including the frequency of occurrence of each earthquake scenario that is considered, and fully considers the random variability (epsilon) in ground motion level. The result of a DSHA is the ground motion at the site resulting from a single earthquake scenario (or a few scenarios) having a preselected value of epsilon (usually 0 or 1), and the annual frequency of exceedance (or return period) of this ground motion level is undefined. In contrast, the hazard curve produced by PSHA yields the mean annual rates of exceedance (or return period) for each ground motion level. The complementary nature of PSHA and DSHA is manifested in the fact that practical application of PSHA, especially using ground motion time histories, results in scenario earthquakes that resemble the products of DSHA. Application of the period dependence of epsilon using the conditional mean spectrum (CMS) avoids the inaccurate and overconservative representation of the hazard by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained in PSHA.
Chriselyn Kavanagh, David Stephens, Peter Hill
Two-dimensional hydraulic models are now widely used to simulate flooding downstream of dams as part of dambreak assessment studies. These models provide high resolution information on velocity distribution across the floodplain, which is of paramount importance to accurate estimation of the depth-velocity product required when undertaking loss of life assessments. In addition, the outputs from these models are much more readily presented as maps and animations, which can be an important tool in the dam safety emergency planning process.
Recently, the United States Army Corps of Engineers released a new version of the popular hydraulic model HEC-RAS which includes the ability to conduct two-dimensional simulations. Other widely used two-dimensional models include DHI’s MIKE suite and TUFLOW. This paper presents a review of the capability, functionality and useability of these models for the specific purpose of dambreak modelling. Key features considered as part of the review include model stability, run times, methods of simulating dam breaches, outputs and the ability to link to loss of life simulation models. A case study comparing the performance of three commonly applied models is presented and discussed, and advice is provided on model selection.