Tim McMorran and Alan Hull
Accurate assessment of potential fault rupture hazard in dam sites is a critical factor in managing dam safety. Assessment of the location and activity of a surface fault within or near an existing or proposed dam can be technically challenging, expensive and affect design and construction schedules.
Three examples from regions of relatively high, moderate and low tectonic activity are used to illustrate that fault rupture hazard assessment is generally feasible in regions with high rates of tectonic activity, historic earthquake occurrence and the presence of Quaternary and Holocene-age landforms and sediments. In regions with relatively low rates of tectonic activity and landscape development, the fault rupture hazard assessment is more challenging.
The examples illustrate that robust geologic and geomorphic analysis provides critical information on the fault rupture hazard at existing and proposed dams. These analyses assist dam owners to obtain a more complete understanding of the fault rupture hazard at their facility, and support their longer term risk assessments.
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Iain Lonie, Malcolm Barker and Colin Thompson
Consideration of flood mitigation benefits, water supply, irrigation and recreational usage played an instrumental role in developing the proposed upgrade for Maroon Dam to meet dam safety and flood capacity requirements. Maroon Dam is a 47.4 m high zoned earthfill dam completed in 1974. The dam is a multi-purpose reservoir which is now owned and operated by Seqwater and plays an important role in the local community. Key drivers for the proposed upgrade design included embankment stability, foundation concerns, piping, spillway capacity and erosion of the embankment toe.
Six options were reduced to three through a high level screening exercise. A more detailed assessment of the remaining options was undertaken using a Multi Criteria Analysis and a detailed risk assessment. Consideration of the competing uses of the reservoir was critical in the development and assessment of the preferred option. This paper will present the details of the analytical methods used as input for the Multi Criteria Analysis and the detailed risk assessment for the final proposed design option that will meet the requirements of dam safety and flood capacity without impacting on water supply, irrigation and recreational usage.
Anurag Srivastava, David S. Bowles and Sanjay S. Chauhan
Based on a generalized event tree algorithm, a deterministic model (DAMRAE) was developed for the US Army Corps of Engineers to support the dam safety risk assessment. With an objective to incorporate the uncertainty analysis functionality for the event tree based risk models, we extend the DAMRAE framework to develop a generic uncertainty analysis tool (DAMRAE-U) for dam safety risk assessment. DAMRAE-U provides a convenient way to efficiently characterize, propagate, and display the outcomes of uncertainty analysis. DAMRAE-U is structured to analyze knowledge uncertainty for the event tree variables and natural variability associated with flood and earthquake loadings. It also provides for separating the effects of uncertainty in the existing condition of the dam system on which the event tree model is dependent. In this paper, we present the details of the developed computational framework. Also, an example risk model to illustrate the inputs and outputs of the framework and the implementation of tolerable risk evaluation incorporating uncertainty in risk estimates is included.
John Duder, David Bouma and Paul McCallum
The authors have been involved in the safety inspection and remediation of many older (pre-dating the 2004 Building Act) farm dams over the past decade coupled with considerable corporate knowledge from dams inspected by Tonkin & Taylor Ltd in its 50+ year history. This paper presents a summary of the varied benefits and risks of these older dams and the difficulties encountered in bringing them into alignment with current practice.
The many farm dams around New Zealand provide considerable benefit to the owners and often to the environment and wider community including the obvious stock water and irrigation, but also micro hydro, recreation, flood detention, release of environmental flows and flows for downstream users, and wetland habitat.
However, when applying current dam safety practice, and looking forward to the implementation of the Dam Safety Regulations, some of the older farm dams have significant dam safety issues that are often challenging to address. Although there is a high degree of variability, typical issues include:
Little or no documentation of geotechnical investigations, design or construction,
Design standards, particularly for spillway capacity have generally increased,
Little or no formal surveillance or maintenance carried out or recorded since commissioning,
Many farm dam owners have a poor understanding of their obligations under the Building Act and the Conditions of their Resource consents,
Consent conditions may not require dam safety related monitoring and maintenance, and/or the conditions may not have been historically enforced.
Many of these farm dams have been constructed by small contractors at the request of the farmers, often with only “standardised” engineering design and little specific geotechnical investigation. Typically there are no as-built records and the dam owners have been left with a general lack of understanding of owner’s responsibilities to monitor and maintain the dam.
Given that there are often very limited funds available for upgrade work, it has proved important to apply sound engineering judgement and a high degree of pragmatism to realise the greatest possible reduction in dam safety related risk for the available funds. Good cooperation between the Regional Authority, the Building Consent Authority for dams (often they are different organisations), the dam owner, and the dam engineer, together with a pragmatic approach is vital in moving toward current best practice for management of these dams.
Case studies are presented for the Northland Region, where the farm dams are typically homogenous earth fill dams in the order of 8 to 12 m high, fulfilling functions as irrigation, stock water supply, recreation and flood detention structures. The findings are considered relevant to earth fill farm dams across the country.
Matthew Sentry and Darren Loidl
To triple Yass’ water storage capacity, Yass Valley Council was required to increase the height of their existing concrete weir by 3.0 m. The 100 m wide weir was originally constructed back in the 1920’s. Upgrade works to the weir included raising the height of the existing concrete weir by 3.0 m with reinforced concrete; install 33 number 27 strand post-tensioned ground anchors vertically into the crest; construct a new outlet structure; upgrade existing mechanical pipe works; and replace the existing pedestrian bridge with a concrete bridge capable of vehicle traffic.
The key project constraints during construction were to maintain constant water to the town’s water treatment plant and maintain minimum 70% reservoir storage.
The original weir had no auxiliary means of flow diversion and the construction constraints meant that the water storage could only be reduced by 1.0 m from the existing crest during construction, resulting in the construction work being carried out in an active water course with minimal means of flow diversion. These key project constraints meant that there was a high risk of flooding during construction work.
Geotechnical Engineering was engaged by Yass Valley Council to carry out the required upgrade work at Yass Dam. Prior to construction work commencing, risk workshops with client and designers clarified the flood risks during construction. To minimise the impact of flood events during construction, Geotech implemented several flood mitigation measures which were controlled by a detailed construction flood management plan. These control measures included construction of two temporary diversion slots cut into the existing concrete weir capable of supporting a 1 in 2 year rain event whilst allowing construction work to continue; re-design of concrete works to minimise the volume of concrete which was to be cut from the existing wall’s downstream face; detailed construction sequencing to minimise impact to existing and new wall during construction work; and the early installation and stressing of anchors.
Although a detailed construction flood management plan was developed and implemented, the Yass Dam site was impacted by 13 floods during the 20 month construction period. Several floods recorded water levels between 1.5 m and 1.9 m above the existing crest, resulting in work ceasing for weeks if not months at a time. As a result of the consistent flooding, Geotech was able to develop stronger and more resilient methods to be able to effectively work within an active watercourse on dam structures where minimal flow diversions are available. This paper presents the unique techniques implemented through the Yass Dam Upgrade project and discusses the effectiveness of these techniques and lessons learnt through the 13 flood events experienced.
Bertrand Rochecouste Collet, Dawid van Wyk and Emmanuel Adanu
The preliminary design of the Kashimbila Multipurpose Dam on the Katsina-Ala River in the Taraba State, Nigeria was initially focussed solely on it functioning as a buffer dam in the case of failure of the natural embankment of Lake Nyos in Cameroon. The failure of Lake Nyos could generate an extreme flood endangering the population in south-eastern Nigeria. As the design process progressed with a more holistic and multipurpose approach, the capacity of the dam was increased to provide irrigation and potable water to the surrounding towns and villages, as well as the generation of hydropower. The dam is a composite structure consisting of a mass concrete gravity uncontrolled spillway, a clay-core rockfill embankment, a 40 MW hydropower station and an outlet works with twin 1.4 m diameter pipes feeding the irrigation pumpstation and water treatment works. This paper covers the design considerations of the Kashimbila Multipurpose Dam and Hydropower Station, with particular emphasis on hydrological challenges and related design solutions.