Simon Lang, David Stephens, Peter Hill, Mark Arnold and Tommie Conway
Considerable thought has been given in recent years to managing the risks associated with floods during the construction of new dams and dam upgrades. Both ANCOLD and the NSW DSC provide some limited advice on how this risk should be managed, with many dam owners aiming for societal risk during construction to be no higher than pre-construction. One approach to do this is to draw down the reservoir such that sufficient airspace is created to reduce the probability of overtopping the construction works to be equal to that of overtopping the dam crest pre-construction. However, this frequently leads to very large releases of valuable water resource being required. This approach also fails to consider that the conditional probabilities of failure may be quite different during construction than during normal operation. A risk-based approach was applied for the recent upgrade of Tarago Reservoir. Existing event trees from a failure modes analysis were adjusted to reflect the construction conditions. In some cases, the event probabilities increased (for example as a result of excavation of the dam embankment), however some also decreased (for example as a result of more rapid means of detecting and intervening in breach formation during construction). The conditional probabilities of failure during construction were then used to estimate the overall seasonal probability of failure, and it was found that a limited draw down of the reservoir would be sufficient to ensure that risks were no higher during construction than pre-construction. To reinforce this, the cost-to-save-a-statistical life was estimated for further drawdown of the reservoir and used to demonstrate that the risks were as low as reasonably practicable.
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Now showing 1-12 of 36 2977:
Neil Jacka, Christopher Dann, Jeremy Eldridge
The Tekapo Canal Remediation Works were undertaken to extend the life of the canal and enhance its seismic and environmental resilience. The deterioration of the canal lining in specific reaches has been the consequence of internal erosion of the lining under operating conditions.
The remedial works comprised installation of a supplementary geomembrane liner over selected sections of the canal, reconstruction of a culvert where the embankment had suffered piping, installation of filters in the Maryburn Fill, strengthening of the bridges across the canal and replacement of irrigation off-takes.
This paper presents a summary of key issues resolved during the design of the remediation works, in particularly the design of the geomembrane ballast system, the cofferdams and the management of side slope stability during drawdown for the works. A number of construction trials were carried out to confirm design assumptions and test construction techniques. The trials were a significant factor in the successful completion of the first season of work ahead of programme.
Keywords: Canal, Lining, Geomembrane, Cofferdam, Design, Seismic resilience
Lyndon Johnson, Alan White and Chris Topham
The integrity of foundation drainage systems is a key factor in minimising uplift pressures under concrete gravity dams. Contemporary industry practice for foundation drainage systems (and modern criteria presented in the imminent release of the concrete gravity dam guidelines) will lead owners with older concrete dams to consider enlarging foundation drainage systems via borehole drilling in the foundation. This paper presents the cautionary tale of a dam owner that undertook foundation drilling works in the gallery of a 67-m high concrete gravity arch dam and experienced borehole “blowout” in one of the drilled holes. Water under 90% of full reservoir head issued from the borehole and needed to be controlled. The context of the works is presented, followed by a description of the blowout, the risk mitigation measures that were planned prior to the work, and which ultimately had to be initiated. Management of the incident is discussed, including the use of blowout protection collars and valves, subsequent investigatory drilling, and pressure grouting programme. Dam safety concerns associated with the incident and their management are presented. The paper concludes with some recommendations to manage these risks for other owners considering a drilling programme in a concrete dam foundation.
B. Perrin and J. Vida
The Cotter Dam project represents the most significant infrastructure project in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) since Parliament House in 1988. Enlarging the Cotter Dam has increased the Cotter reservoir capacity from 3 GL to 78 GL, representing a 35% increase of ACTEW Corporation’s total reservoir capacity for the ACT region and providing water security to facilitate future population growth.
At 87 m high, Cotter Dam is the tallest Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) dam in Australia. Construction began in October 2009, with excavation of the dam foundation commencing in March 2010. With typically 05H:1V slopes up to 115 m high, excavation posed a number of challenges. RCC placement commenced in August 2011 and continued until December 2012.
Innovation and continuous improvement were crucial to the success of the project. From development of specialised mechanical tools for the abutment excavation, to use of precast, to mechanical paving of the downstream RCC steps, construction practice on Cotter Dam established a number of new benchmarks for RCC dam construction.
This paper will describe the construction innovations used to overcome the challenges associated with construction during foundation preparation and RCC placement for the Cotter Dam Project.
John Duder, David Bouma and Paul McCallum
The authors have been involved in the safety inspection and remediation of many older (pre-dating the 2004 Building Act) farm dams over the past decade coupled with considerable corporate knowledge from dams inspected by Tonkin & Taylor Ltd in its 50+ year history. This paper presents a summary of the varied benefits and risks of these older dams and the difficulties encountered in bringing them into alignment with current practice.
The many farm dams around New Zealand provide considerable benefit to the owners and often to the environment and wider community including the obvious stock water and irrigation, but also micro hydro, recreation, flood detention, release of environmental flows and flows for downstream users, and wetland habitat.
However, when applying current dam safety practice, and looking forward to the implementation of the Dam Safety Regulations, some of the older farm dams have significant dam safety issues that are often challenging to address. Although there is a high degree of variability, typical issues include:
Little or no documentation of geotechnical investigations, design or construction,
Design standards, particularly for spillway capacity have generally increased,
Little or no formal surveillance or maintenance carried out or recorded since commissioning,
Many farm dam owners have a poor understanding of their obligations under the Building Act and the Conditions of their Resource consents,
Consent conditions may not require dam safety related monitoring and maintenance, and/or the conditions may not have been historically enforced.
Many of these farm dams have been constructed by small contractors at the request of the farmers, often with only “standardised” engineering design and little specific geotechnical investigation. Typically there are no as-built records and the dam owners have been left with a general lack of understanding of owner’s responsibilities to monitor and maintain the dam.
Given that there are often very limited funds available for upgrade work, it has proved important to apply sound engineering judgement and a high degree of pragmatism to realise the greatest possible reduction in dam safety related risk for the available funds. Good cooperation between the Regional Authority, the Building Consent Authority for dams (often they are different organisations), the dam owner, and the dam engineer, together with a pragmatic approach is vital in moving toward current best practice for management of these dams.
Case studies are presented for the Northland Region, where the farm dams are typically homogenous earth fill dams in the order of 8 to 12 m high, fulfilling functions as irrigation, stock water supply, recreation and flood detention structures. The findings are considered relevant to earth fill farm dams across the country.
At the time that Contact Energy Ltd renewed the consents to operate its hydro generation dams in the Clutha catchment of Central Otago, it entered into an agreement with the kayaking community to construct a whitewater park on the Hawea River. The construction of the whitewater park was part of a package designed to mitigate the adverse effect on the natural whitewater features in the catchment caused by the construction of hydro generation dams
This paper outlines the process involved in identifying the preferred option, obtaining the necessary consent, design and construction and commissioning of the Hawea Whitewater Park.