Simon Lang, David Stephens, Peter Hill, Mark Arnold and Tommie Conway
Considerable thought has been given in recent years to managing the risks associated with floods during the construction of new dams and dam upgrades. Both ANCOLD and the NSW DSC provide some limited advice on how this risk should be managed, with many dam owners aiming for societal risk during construction to be no higher than pre-construction. One approach to do this is to draw down the reservoir such that sufficient airspace is created to reduce the probability of overtopping the construction works to be equal to that of overtopping the dam crest pre-construction. However, this frequently leads to very large releases of valuable water resource being required. This approach also fails to consider that the conditional probabilities of failure may be quite different during construction than during normal operation. A risk-based approach was applied for the recent upgrade of Tarago Reservoir. Existing event trees from a failure modes analysis were adjusted to reflect the construction conditions. In some cases, the event probabilities increased (for example as a result of excavation of the dam embankment), however some also decreased (for example as a result of more rapid means of detecting and intervening in breach formation during construction). The conditional probabilities of failure during construction were then used to estimate the overall seasonal probability of failure, and it was found that a limited draw down of the reservoir would be sufficient to ensure that risks were no higher during construction than pre-construction. To reinforce this, the cost-to-save-a-statistical life was estimated for further drawdown of the reservoir and used to demonstrate that the risks were as low as reasonably practicable.
M.G. Webby and N.D. Sutherland
Repairs to the floor slab of the outlet transition section of the Pukaki Canal Inlet Structure in November 2009 were likely to have adversely affected the hydraulic jump behaviour in the transition section of the structure and therefore necessitated revision of the safe operating limits for the structure. Three separate series of flow trials were carried out at different lake levels over a period of about a year to carefully observe the behaviour of the hydraulic jump under a variety of gate operating configurations and discharges. New safe limits of operation for the structure were defined for the structure using the flow observations from the flow trials and the framework of analytical models for different types of hydraulic jump. The revised limits of safe operation were successfully implemented in 2013.
Tim Gillon and Grant Murray
Chelsea Estate is located on the edge of the Waitemata Harbour, and is only ten minutes drive from Auckland central business district. Within Chelsea Estate are four ‘low’ potential impact classification (PIC) dams, which cascade along Duck Creek. Three of the dams are over 100 years old and all dams were built from 1884 to 1917. The dams and the reservoirs have served, and continue to serve, several purposes including stormwater retention, recreational use and water supply for the adjacent sugar factory. In 2008 Auckland Council (AC) purchased the Chelsea Estate from the New Zealand Sugar Company (NZSC) and in 2009 the Estate was registered in the New Zealand Historic Places Trust (NZHPT). This paper discusses the history and functionality of the multi-function Chelsea Estate dams, the development of the site and how it impacts our understanding of the dams today.
Keywords: Chelsea Estate, multi-function dams, heritage dams.
Kinchant Dam is a zoned earth and rockfill embankment situated on the north branch of Sandy Creek, approximately 30 km southwest of Mackay in central Queensland. Kinchant Dam was constructed in stages. The ‘Initial Development Stage’ which consisted of an embankment length of approximately 3.3 km and full supply level (FSL) of EL 49.21 m AHD was completed in 1977. Further development completed in 1986 (Stage I) increased the FSL to EL 57.21 m AHD with an embankment length of 5.5 km and a maximum embankment height of 22.3 m. The dam has a storage capacity of 62,800 Ml and a 60 m wide emergency spillway with a fixed crest level of EL 58.21 m AHD, one metre higher than the FSL.
A series of investigations have been carried out since its construction as a consequence of both regulatory safety reviews and observed excessive pore pressures within the foundation that have led to wet patches developing at the toe of the dam. In one area at the toe, pore pressures were such that artesian conditions developed. This paper outlines the history of various stages of construction of the dam, the foundation investigations since construction and the safety review and comprehensive risk assessment process that lead to the upgrade design and construction of remedial works. The remedial works include the extension of the downstream filter material adjacent to the clay core and the provision of additional pressure relief wells at the downstream toe of the dam.
Peter A. Ballantine
In view of the need for a safety upgrade for the Quipolly Dam and the plans of Liverpool Plains Shire Council for future growth in water supply, the Council took the opportunity to increase the storage capacity of the dam by raising the full supply level by 2.0 m. In 2009, the Council appointed GHD to design the upgrade in accordance with the ALARP principle.
The design of the dam included an innovative vertical crest wall, embedded into the embankment, a concrete-lined auxiliary spillway placed over the embankment adjacent to the existing spillway and the installation of Hydroplus Fusegates in the existing spillway channel.
This paper describes the design of the upgrade works.
Monique de Moel and Gamini Adikari
Parks Victoria manages over 4 million hectares of parkland and a portfolio of over $1.9 billion worth of infrastructure assets. Within this portfolio, Parks Victoria is responsible for a large number of dams and their associated structures. Consequence category of these dams varies from Extreme to Very Low. Parks Victoria recognised that these assets required a dam safety management and monitoring program. The development of a program commenced with a portfolio risk assessment in 1998 which progressed to detailed design reviews of a selected number of dams and the initiation of an ongoing dam safety and surveillance program. This initial work identified the need for dam safety upgrade works within this asset portfolio which Parks Victoria has been progressively addressing. In 2012 Parks Victoria identified that a review of the risk profile of the dams was warranted. The review included consideration of alternative options such as staging of works, reducing storage volume and decommissioning, as well as non-technical considerations such as increasing the recreational use and the environmental value of these assets. This paper outlines the approach adopted by Parks Victoria in developing and improving its dam safety program and how it has assisted in minimising dam safety risks. Specifically, Parks Victoria’s approach of adopting measures that recognize the purpose and benefits of the individual storages, whilst being sympathetic to the requirements of the other infrastructure within its diverse portfolio of assets is highlighted. Since this work commenced in 1998, Parks Victoria have been successful in the development of an effective dam safety and management program which has resulted in the reduction of risks associated with this portfolio of assets.