Bertrand Rochecouste Collet, Dawid van Wyk and Emmanuel Adanu
The preliminary design of the Kashimbila Multipurpose Dam on the Katsina-Ala River in the Taraba State, Nigeria was initially focussed solely on it functioning as a buffer dam in the case of failure of the natural embankment of Lake Nyos in Cameroon. The failure of Lake Nyos could generate an extreme flood endangering the population in south-eastern Nigeria. As the design process progressed with a more holistic and multipurpose approach, the capacity of the dam was increased to provide irrigation and potable water to the surrounding towns and villages, as well as the generation of hydropower. The dam is a composite structure consisting of a mass concrete gravity uncontrolled spillway, a clay-core rockfill embankment, a 40 MW hydropower station and an outlet works with twin 1.4 m diameter pipes feeding the irrigation pumpstation and water treatment works. This paper covers the design considerations of the Kashimbila Multipurpose Dam and Hydropower Station, with particular emphasis on hydrological challenges and related design solutions.
Richard Davidson, Jennifer Williams, Roger Raeburn and Jason Boomer
Ashton Dam is a 20-m high embankment dam located on the Henry’s Fork River in Eastern Idaho. It is a high hazard structure licensed with the FERC. The dam was completed in 1916 as a zoned earth and rockfill dam utilizing a low plasticity silt core. Ashton Dam is located approximately 13 km north of Teton Dam and is the sole remaining structure of four similarly designed dams. Over the years, the dam’s condition deteriorated, evidenced by periodic recurrence of sinkholes, sediment plumes and settlement.
PacifiCorp initiated a major 3-year rehabilitation project for the structure. Based on a risk-based design process, a new zoned embankment was reconstructed. Significant structural upgrades were also required for the powerhouse, training walls and gated spillway. To facilitate this construction, a new diversion tunnel and gated outlet structure were built to divert the river and manage flood flows. Cofferdams were required for both the upstream and downstream construction works.
Several challenges were encountered during construction, which were managed with a risk-based process. These included addressing the uncertainties that were known during design and the unknowns that were discovered during construction. Some of the construction challenges covered in the paper include utilization and processing of low plasticity silty material for embankment reconstruction, tunnel construction through fractured basalt with a major shear zone, a lake tap excavation in the wet, dewatering of the embankment excavation, left abutment treatment, real-time redesign of structural features, and fill placement in a constrained excavation.
This paper provides a synopsis of how these design and construction challenges were addressed and overcome on a “blue ribbon” trout stream with high public visibility and interest. Of particular concern was the need for cold weather concrete work, managing flood flows, lake tap and embankment excavation during the very limited construction seasons, and maintaining environmental river controls for the sensitive downstream ecosystem.
Keywords: Risk-based design, Embankment Reconstruction, Piping, Aged Concrete Repair
M.G. Webby and N.D. Sutherland
Repairs to the floor slab of the outlet transition section of the Pukaki Canal Inlet Structure in November 2009 were likely to have adversely affected the hydraulic jump behaviour in the transition section of the structure and therefore necessitated revision of the safe operating limits for the structure. Three separate series of flow trials were carried out at different lake levels over a period of about a year to carefully observe the behaviour of the hydraulic jump under a variety of gate operating configurations and discharges. New safe limits of operation for the structure were defined for the structure using the flow observations from the flow trials and the framework of analytical models for different types of hydraulic jump. The revised limits of safe operation were successfully implemented in 2013.
Tim Gillon and Grant Murray
Chelsea Estate is located on the edge of the Waitemata Harbour, and is only ten minutes drive from Auckland central business district. Within Chelsea Estate are four ‘low’ potential impact classification (PIC) dams, which cascade along Duck Creek. Three of the dams are over 100 years old and all dams were built from 1884 to 1917. The dams and the reservoirs have served, and continue to serve, several purposes including stormwater retention, recreational use and water supply for the adjacent sugar factory. In 2008 Auckland Council (AC) purchased the Chelsea Estate from the New Zealand Sugar Company (NZSC) and in 2009 the Estate was registered in the New Zealand Historic Places Trust (NZHPT). This paper discusses the history and functionality of the multi-function Chelsea Estate dams, the development of the site and how it impacts our understanding of the dams today.
Keywords: Chelsea Estate, multi-function dams, heritage dams.
Nanda Nandakumar and Stephen Farrelly
Fuseplug auxiliary spillways are used to increase the discharge capacity in dam upgrades for flood security. Hydrologic level-pool routings are used to determine the size and trigger levels for fuseplugs. In the level-pool routing, the water surface from the body of the storage to fuse bays is generally assumed to be horizontal and any drawdown effects on the water level are neglected. This paper assesses the validity of this assumption using the CFD model results for Keepit Dam. It is shown that equal spacing of trigger levels can result in premature activation, and the drawdown effects need to be taken into account in determining spacing of trigger levels. It was also shown that the design water levels for the intermediate AEPs are underestimated.
A comparison of inflow and outflow frequency curves showed that peak outflows can exceed the peak inflows due to fuseplug operations, but the downstream impact is expected to be negligible due the size of the flood in which the peak outflow will exceed the peak inflow.
At the time that Contact Energy Ltd renewed the consents to operate its hydro generation dams in the Clutha catchment of Central Otago, it entered into an agreement with the kayaking community to construct a whitewater park on the Hawea River. The construction of the whitewater park was part of a package designed to mitigate the adverse effect on the natural whitewater features in the catchment caused by the construction of hydro generation dams
This paper outlines the process involved in identifying the preferred option, obtaining the necessary consent, design and construction and commissioning of the Hawea Whitewater Park.