David S. Bowles, Sanjay S. Chauhan, Loren R. Anderson, Ryan C. Grove
A risk assessment (RA) was conducted for 27 miles of Herbert Hoover Dike to better understand and estimate the Baseline failure risk. Unique aspects of this risk assessment included the following: high stillwater levels persisting for almost a year; highly dynamic and spatially variable wind loading; short-duration wind setup that reduces likelihood of piping; dike length that increases probability of failure; and multiple breaches with overlapping inundation areas that affect failure probability and consequences and the risk evaluations.
A wide range of stillwater and wind loading combinations were considered. Following a potential failure modes analysis (PFMA), failure modes included were: piping through foundation, embankment piping, piping along conduits, piping along structures through embankment, embankment and flood wall instability, and overwash and overtopping. System response probabilities (SRPs) were estimated using toolboxes, analyses and expert judgment. Life-loss consequences were estimated using LIFESim. RA calculations were performed using DAMRAE-HHD, which includes length effects. Estimated risks were evaluated against the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) tolerable risk guidelines (TRG). Uncertainties were explored using sensitivity analyses.
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Now showing 1-12 of 40 2976:
Nicole Anderson, M. Tooley, N. Vitharana, D. Moore
There is a significant stock of aging concrete dams in Australia which do not meet the requirements of modern dam safety practices. Where no site-specific information exists, current practice requires unduly simplified, conservative assumptions to be made. In some cases, this results in theoretical dam failure for load conditions which the dam has already experienced and safely withstood.
This paper outlines a range of site-specific field and laboratory investigations undertaken to reduce uncertainties in the assessment of two concrete gravity dams. For one dam, a suite of lab tests was undertaken to determine the residual reactivity so that potential future Alkaline-Aggregate Reaction induced expansion can be incorporated into any upgrade design.
The main purpose of the investigations was to reduce inherent uncertainties surrounding the design assumptions for strength and uplift pressures. This in turn reduced uncertainties relating to the risk profile of the dams.
The findings of this investigation will be of interest to dam designers and owners faced with upgrading concrete dams where a single traditional assumption can result in the difference between no upgrade or an upgrade worth several million dollars.
Keywords: Concrete gravity dams, testing, upgrade, Alkali Aggregate Reaction, dam design guidelines.
This paper highlights the importance of hydraulic diversion control structures during construction of large dams and the value of allocating sufficient resources during project planning and implementation.
The design of the diversion gate for construction of the Enlarged Cotter Dam presented various challenges, including operation for up to 38m head for discharge into a 3m diameter conduit and the need to serve as an upstream concrete form during eventual diversion closure.
The short duration of operation allowed acceptance of increased level of operational risk and a higher level of design uncertainty. The design used generally accepted gate design methods, but no hydraulic modelling. The hydrodynamic forces were estimated using published data. After installation, a 1 in 100 AEP flood event resulted in the gate being subjected to 90% of its design head while operating in conditions close to the maximum design down-pull force. Attempts to raise the gate succeeded only after increasing the hydraulic pressure above the design value.
Keywords: Guard gate design, outlet works, dam, construction.
Penelope Shaw, Brian Walford, Daniel Yates
The Bowen Basin is one of Australia’s economic mining powerhouses. Key to the mining of coal is the efficient management of the available water resources. For many years drought has meant that coal mines have had to manage operations with low quantities of water. For a new mine, this involved sophisticated hydrologic modelling as part of staying in business. In recent years a turnaround in weather conditions and changes to discharge permissions have meant that mines have too much saline water!
The paper describes how one mine augmented its small system of storages with a new dam and pumping system to meet regulatory requirements. Although not a large dam, the challenges confronted are shown to be similar to those involved in the delivery of much larger projects, all related to the power of water.
Keywords: Design storage allowance, water management, challenges, environmental protection, mining dams, automated pumping systems, spillway upgrading.
Karen Riddette, Chee Wei Tan, Alan Collins, David Ho
Due to a number of historical stilling basin slab failures around the world, modern basin slab stability assessment approaches now require allowance for hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations. Extreme fluctuations in uplift pressures have been found to occur in hydraulic jumps and plunge pools resulting in high-pressure pulses being transmitted via joints and drainage openings to the underside of the slab. If, peak uplift forces beneath the slab coincide with minimum pressure fluctuations on the top of the slab, the resulting pressure differential can be sufficient to lift a slab. As a result, simple static design based on tailwater depth and mean floor pressures is now considered highly non-conservative.
Through a case study on the Waipapa Dam spillway stilling basin, this paper examines the use of CFD modelling to compute mean hydrodynamic slab pressures taking into account the location of the hydraulic jump and the effect of the impact blocks on the pressure distribution over the slab. By combining the CFD results with empirically-derived pressure fluctuations, uplift scenarios are applied in a FEA model to compute the maximum load in the slab anchors and examine the sensitivity of the stilling basin slabs to uplift failure.
Keywords: Stilling basin, hydrodynamic modelling, CFD, pressure fluctuation, slab stability.
Shane McGrath, Andrew Reynolds, Garry Fyfe, Chris Kelly, Steven Fox
Goulburn-Murray Water is a rural water corporation located in Northern Victoria. It has responsibility for 12 State dams and is also the constructing authority for the Murray Darling Basin Authority’s Victorian assets.
Over the past 15 years G-MW has been engaged in a dam improvement program across its portfolio. To date 14 individual projects have been undertaken at 11 dams. The total expenditure is $125 million.
Starting from a base level of data at its inception in 1997, the program has encompassed all facets required for a dam improvement program. From early prioritisation to set the investigation program, through design reviews and risk assessments to develop the upgrading program and subsequent implementation. Some elements of the program were at the leading edge of practice at the time and a range of experiences along the way were character building as dam safety investment challenged other corporate priorities.
This paper sets out the lessons learned in developing the methodology and implementing the program of works, particularly relating to corporate adoption of the program, organisational capability, investigations, risk assessments, design and implementation.