C.Johnson, D.Stephens, M.Arnold and N.Vitharana
As part of Melbourne Water’s dam safety upgrade program, emergency release capacity is being investigated at a number of dams. Recent work undertaken by the Water Resources Alliance (WRA) for Melbourne Water has highlighted the lack of current Australian guidelines for appropriate emergency release capacity. With no relevant ANCOLD Guidelines, current practice still references the 1990 USBR guidelines which relate the length of time to empty a reservoir to the hazard and risk associated with dam failure. As hazard category assessment criteria has been improved since and dam design and safety standards are more stringent, the applicability of the USBR criteria in today’s environment is under consideration.
With the prevailing climatic conditions requiring the augmentation of Melbourne’s water supplies, the Tarago Reservoir was recently brought back into service. However, the dam lacked adequate emergency and environmental release capacity, with this being critical to manage construction flood risk for a pending filter raising project. Through an analysis of recorded inflow data, it was evident the existing scour facility had insufficient capacity to handle the recorded inflows, and would not be able to maintain the reservoir at an appropriate level during the proposed works. The length of time to empty the reservoir for the existing scour facility and the preferred scour upgrade option were calculated and it was found that by providing a new 1200mm scour facility, USBR emptying times were met or exceeded. The enlarged outlet capacity was also required to meet the new environmental flow requirements for the dam.
The paper will review international guidelines, share the experience of several Australian water authorities in assigning emergency release capacity for their dams, and discuss the specific work undertaken to provide suitable emergency release capacity at Tarago Reservoir for Melbourne Water.
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Steven Slarke, Martin Mallen-Cooper, Andrew Evans, John Prentice
As part of the Murray-Darling Basin Authority ‘Sea to Hume Dam’ program to restore fish passage along the River Murray, an innovative Denil fishway is being retrofitted into Mildura Weir (Lock 11). Due for completion in the latter half of 2010, the fishway will allow the upstream and downstream passage of medium and large sized fish past Mildura Weir, which has a difference in water levels of 3.5 metres.
Constructed on the sloped concrete apron at the left abutment of the Dethridge weir, the Mildura Weir Denil fishway design is innovative in the River Murray. The Denil fishway is essentially separate from the existing weir, and its superstructure can be fully removed from the river during floods. The fishway can also be progressively removed during periods of rising floodwaters, maintaining operation during periods when fish migrate in particularly large numbers. The fishway represents a cost effective design, reflecting the decision to maintain the current weir structure for a further forty years, but still providing passage to a broad range of fish sizes and species. Innovative fish monitoring and carp separation facilities will be provided, shared with the other River Murray fishways. But, unique to the River Murray, viewing windows are provided to allow the public to observe fish negotiating the fishway, and to enable a better understanding of fish movement.
David Ryan, Sean Fleming
The Connors River Dam and Pipeline Project comprises the construction of a 367,540 ML storage on the Connors River located in central Queensland and a 130 km pipeline capable of delivering annually 49,500 ML of high priority water to the rapidly expanding Central Queensland Coalfields. The dam also has the capacity to supply water for the downstream agricultural sector.
Key outcomes of SunWater’s recent business case investigations included the identification of a strategy that would deliver the project in parallel with the construction programs currently being developed by the coal mining sector, the delivery of a quality product with high certainty cost and the ability to supply water at a commercially attractive rate. Construction activity is currently scheduled to commence in mid 2011, with commissioning of the works early 2014.
The paper outlines the project details, the design features of the dam and pipeline and the contract strategy adopted in an attempt to deliver the project on time and within budget.
Keywords: Roller Compacted Concrete, Early Contractor Involvement, Design and Construction.
Jared Deible, John Osterle, Charles Weatherford, Tom Hollenkamp, Matt Frerking
The original rockfill dike, constructed in 1963 to form the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Project near Lesterville, MO failed on December 14, 2005. The Upper Reservoir has been completely rebuilt as a 2.83 million cubic yard (2.16 million cubic meters) Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Dam in compliance with FERC Regulations. The project is the largest RCC project constructed in the USA and is the first pumped storage project to utilize an RCC water retaining structure. The project is owned and operated by AmerenUE and consists of an Upper Reservoir and a Lower Reservoir connected by a vertical shaft, rock tunnel, and penstock. The Powerhouse has two pump-turbines with a total generation capacity of 450MW.
A refill plan was developed to monitor the performance of the dam during the first refill. Because it is a pumped storage project with no natural inflow, the reservoir level can be raised and lowered with reversible pump turbines. The refill plan includes hold points when the dam s performance will be assessed at eight reservoir levels. Monitoring of the performance of the dam is done through instrumentation readings and visual inspections. Inspections check for alignment changes, leakage, seepage, cracking, or any other unusual or changed conditions. Instrumentation monitored during the refill program includes piezometers, seepage weirs, survey monuments, and joint meters. The level control system for the project was also evaluated during the refill program. This paper summarizes the monitoring and inspections conducted during the refill and the performance of the dam during this period, and the performance of the dam during the initial period after the refill program.
M. Tooley, N. Anderson, N. Vitharana, G. McNally, C. Johnson and D. Moore
There is a significant stock of aging concrete dams in Australia which would not meet the requirements of the current recognised dam safety practices applicable to concrete gravity dams.
In this paper, field and laboratory investigations undertaken for two concrete gravity dams are presented, these being Middle River Dam and Warren Dam both owned and operated by the South Australian Water Corporation. The field investigations included a comprehensive drilling program recovering core samples ranging in diameter from 61mm (HQ) to 95mm (4C), continuous imaging (RAAX) of the drilled holes and installation of piezometers. Geological logging of the holes and mapping of the unlined spillway were also undertaken. The laboratory program included the testing of concrete lift joints and concrete samples in direct tension, shear and compression.
Concrete in Middle River Dam is suffering from extensive Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR), and consequently a suite of laboratory testing is being undertaken to determine the current level of deterioration and residual reactivity so that potential future AAR-induced expansion can be incorporated into any upgrade design solution.
The main purpose of the study is to determine whether site-specific parameters can be used to re-assess the stability of these two dams as calculations, based on the current standards, have shown that the dams have exceeded the allowable factors of safety values at the storage water levels experienced to date.
The findings may be useful to dam designers and owners faced with the upgrading of concrete dams, where traditional assumptions can result in no upgrade or an upgrade costing several million dollars.
Ted Montoya, David Hughes, Orville Werner
The existing Hinze Dam was raised beginning in 2007 to increase water storage capacity, improve its ability to regulate floods, and raise the level of structural safety as compared to the current dam. As part of the 15 m raise of Hinze Dam, the existing 33 m high spillway structure was raised using mass concrete. This new composite structure was constructed as a downstream raise, placing mass concrete on the downstream and top of the existing spillway. The designers of the composite spillway structure developed a finite-element model to consider the early expansion and subsequent slow contraction of the new concrete against the existing concrete. The temperature rise of the new section of mass concrete had to be monitored and controlled to reduce the tensile strains along its interface with the existing spillway, and differential temperatures had to be limited to avoid cracking of the new mass section. Low-heat cement for a conventional mass concrete mix was not readily available so a mix was developed using local materials.
Typical mass concrete dams are monolithic structures constructed with lowheat cement. The Hinze Dam spillway design was predicated on the use of materials readily available. The paper presents the assumptions, methods, and criteria that were used in developing the mass concrete mix. It also presents the means and methods for tracking temperature gain during construction of the raised spillway, and how temperature was influenced by placement temperature, construction sequencing, and seasonal conditions. Lastly, the paper will compare the actual performance of the mix with the design analysis, laboratory testing, and finite element studies that were performed during the design.