David S. Bowles, Loren R. Anderson, Michael E. Ruthford, David C. Serafini, Sanjay S. Chauhan, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento, CA
In 2005 the Sacramento District of the US Army Corps of Engineers implemented an operating restriction to reduce the risk of an earthquake-induced failure of Success Dam, which could cause significant life loss and property damage. This paper describes an update of the 2004 risk-based evaluation of operating restrictions for Lake Success, which incorporated new information obtained by the District and enabled a re-evaluation of the level of the operating restriction and provided a basis for a possible modification of the restriction.
A RISK-BASED RE-EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR OPERATING RESTRICTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FAILURE FROM EARTHQUAKE AND PIPING
Jared Deible, Richard Herweynen, Gary Dow
The foundation is an important element in the stability of any dam. Understanding the foundation and the potential failure mechanisms associated with the dam foundation is critical to developing the final dam design. This paper will discuss the challenges encountered with the foundation at the Taum Sauk Upper Reservoir Dam and the Wyaralong Dam.
The Upper Reservoir of the Taum Sauk project is a 2.3 million cubic metre roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam located near Ironton, Missouri, USA. The RCC dam was constructed in accordance with United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) guidelines to replace a rockfill dike that failed abruptly on December 14, 2005. Wyaralong Dam is a new RCC dam, for water supply, located on the Teviot Brook near the township of Beaudesert in south-east Queensland.
Wyaralong and Taum Sauk each had challenges associated with identifying potential failure mechanisms in the foundation and with analysing the stability of the dam for these potential failure mechanisms. The geology at the projects was very different, but challenges for each project were quantifying the amount of reliance that was placed on the rock mass at the toe of the dam, developing the shear strength parameters, and developing the associated failure mechanisms that would be analysed.
The design of Wyaralong and the rebuilt Taum Sauk Upper Reservoir, including the geometry of the dam sections, were developed based on the foundation features at each project. Foundation treatments and excavation designs were developed based on the stability analyses conducted during the design phase. These foundation treatments included removal of weak layers or defects where necessary, but features were left in place in the foundation at selected locations at each project. Where features were left in place, stability analyses concluded the dam was stable. The stability analyses at each project considered three dimensional effects along features in the foundation where appropriate.
As the foundation was uncovered during the construction phase of each project, the parameters used in the stability analysis conducted during the design phase were confirmed or adjusted. The excavation and foundation preparation activities were adjusted as necessary based on actual conditions during the construction phase.
Challenges Associated with Identifying and Analysing Potential Failure Mechanisms in Dam Foundations – Taum Sauk Upper Reservoir Dam & Wyaralong Dam Case Studies
David Ryan, Peter Richardson, William Steen
Ibis Creek Dam, a referable dam and classified as a mass concrete gravity structure, was constructed in 1906 to supply water for both tin ore processing and the local township of Irvinebank. Irvinebank is a small township near Atherton in North Queensland and is situated about 3 km downstream of the dam. The mill ceased operation in 1990 but the township of Irvinebank remains reliant on the dam for water supply.
In 1996 the dam was raised about 1 m and strengthened by the addition of mass concrete on the crest and downstream face.
One recommendation of the Safety Review conducted in 2009 was that an investigation be made of the strength of the lift joints and the shear capacity of the connection between the Stage I and Stage II concrete sections. The investigations revealed that the structure was not constructed as had been originally assumed and the overall stability of the structure had been overestimated.
This paper details the investigations and remedial works proposed to strengthen the structure so that it complies with current design standards.
Brendan Sheehan, Chris Topham, Alan White, Rowenna Lagden
Darwin Dam is a 21m high embankment dam constructed on a geologically complex foundation that includes karst limestone features. The dam retains the top 15m of Lake Burbury on Tasmania’s west coast, and borders the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. Defensive design of the dam addressed the key failure modes of piping through the complex foundations of limestone, sandstone, gravels and silts, and guarding against sinkholes forming in the limestone foundations. During construction, a comprehensive range of instruments were installed in the dam and foundation, as a long term means of monitoring this structure. A range of surveillance data has been collected since lake filling and this data, along with historic geological investigation information, was used to develop a three dimensional (3D) geological model of the dam and
foundation with phreatic profiles. The software used was a commercially available geographical information system. This tool has assisted Hydro Tasmania to better understand and manage the dam. The paper outlines the need for a 3D model, the methodology for development of the model, resources required, limitations and lessons learned. The benefits of the model, such as aiding understanding of foundation behaviour, assisting with interpretation of surveillance data, supporting decision making, and potential use during incident response are also discussed.
Keywords: Three dimensional, computer model, karst foundation, geology, hydrogeology ,dam surveillance
G.L. Vaschetti, C.A. Verani, J.W. Cowland
Geomembranes are an established technique for long-term waterproofing of hydraulic structures including all types of dams, canals, tunnels and reservoirs.
Three construction projects are presented that feature unique waterproofing solutions leading to faster construction programmes and granting safer and longer service life at lower costs: The 35 m high Paradise Dam (aka Burnett River), Australia’s largest volume Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) dam waterproofed using a PolyVinylChloride (PVC) geomembrane sandwiched between prefabricated concrete panels and the RCC itself; The 50 m high multipurpose Meander Dam in Tasmania, designed as a RCC dam of the low cementitious content type whose imperviousness is provided by a PVC geomembrane installed in exposed position and mechanically anchored to the upstream face of the dam; And the Eidsvold Weir, a 115 m long 15.45 m high RCC structure used for water supply, waterproofed using an external PVC waterstop installed on the upstream face and able to accommodate the expected movements at the joints.
The paper will outline the technical details, installation and performance of the geomembranes.
Advantages gained from the use of a geomembrane waterproofing system on RCC dams – experiences from Australia
Karen Riddette, David Ho
Recent dam safety reviews of a number of Australian dams have identified that the arms of raised radial gates may be partially submerged by extreme flows which exceed the original design flood for the dam. Various design solutions have been proposed to secure and strengthen the radial gates, however an important concern is the potential for flow-induced vibration. Under extreme flood conditions, flows near the gate arms will be high-velocity, free-surface, with a steep angle of attack on the arm beams. Traditional hand calculations for computing vibrations are of limited applicability in this situation, and there is little published data available for this combination of flow conditions and arm geometry. A detailed study using CFD modelling of the potential for vibration around radial gate arms was carried out for Wyangala Dam. This paper presents the results of the validation and reveals some interesting flow patterns and vortex shedding behaviour.
Assessment of flow-induced vibration in radial gates during extreme flood