Gavan Hunter, Chris Chamberlain, Mark Foster
Hinze dam, an extreme hazard storage, is under the authority of Seqwater (Southeast Queensland) and is principle potable water storage supplying the Gold Coast. Hinze Dam Stage 3, presently under construction, involves raising the existing embankment almost 15m to a maximum height of 80m.
The foundation geology on the right abutment of the main embankment comprises of a deeply weathered sequence of greywacke and variably silicified greenstone and chert. The deeply (and variably) weathered soil profile below the right abutment of the existing embankment presented an unacceptable piping risk for the embankment in its existing condition. Contributing factors included: 1/ the highly erodible extremely weathered greywacke and presence of continuous defects in the weathered soil mass; 2/ the extremely weathered greenstone in direct contact with highly fractured, highly permeable silicified greenstone and chert bodies aligned normal to the dam axis which provide continuous seepage paths through the foundation.
Works were required as part of the Stage 3 raise to address the foundation piping risk. Significant issues for design included: 1/ the depth of weathering extended up to 25to 40m into the foundation.; 2/ extremely weathered and highly erodible greenstone was present below the right abutment of the embankment and extended down to the lower abutment some 50 to 60 m below the existing dam crest; 3/ the reservoir level could not be drawn down during construction and the probability it would be near full supply level during the works was high; and 4/ the variability of strength in the greenstone form soil to extremely high strength presented challenges for excavation.
The options assessed to address the piping risk included a plastic concrete cut-off wall and an upstream blanketing option. The plastic concrete cut-off wall (220m long and up to 50m deep) and deep filter trench was the selected option. The cut-off wall had been successfully completed ahead of time and below budget. The innovative design required excavation through earthfill core of the embankment under full reservoir level and use of a purpose built trench cutter (by Bauer Foundations Australia) for the variable excavation conditions.
Keywords: dam safety, piping, risk assessment, cut-off wall.
Shane Papworth, Stuart Richardson, David Dreverman, Mel Jackson
A prominent element of the operational environment of a dam is its interaction with the community.The management of public recreational use of irrigation storages is an increasing challenge for Goulburn-Murray Water and the Murray Darling Basin Authority. The upper Murray storages have been significantly affected by the unprecedented low water resource availability which has caused an increasing conflict between the primary use of the dam to supply irrigation water and the secondary benefit of recreation and tourism use by the local communities. Many difficult management issues (media, community relations, political interest) arise from the local community, rather than just from operation of the dam itself.
An increasing awareness of the dire water resource position in recent years has coincided with an ever increasing appreciation of the environmental and social impacts of recreational use. For the storages along the Murray system, effective management is further complicated by complex agency and authority responsibilities, communities and interest groups effectively ‘in competition’ for the water resource.
To better manage these issues, ‘Land and On-Water Management Plans’ have been developed for Lake Mulwala and Lake Hume. Developing the Plans has not been without controversy, but ultimately the Plans have proved to be a simple and successful means of planning for and achieving agreed land and water management outcomes. This in turn is fostering a positive spirit of cooperation and communication with communities currently under considerable stress as a result of prolonged drought.
This paper describes the process, pitfalls and learnings to come out of the development of the Land and On-Water Management Plans.
Key words: Environment, community, irrigation dams, recreational use, planning
Chi Fai Wan, Tom Haid, Jim McClain, Kelly Rodgers
The dams market in California is alive again with phenomenal growth driven by an increasing need for storage to hedge against ongoing water scarcity due to climate change and a growing demand for reliable water supplies driven by population and economic needs. To meet the region’s water supply needs the San Diego County Water Authority has launched the Emergency Storage Project (ESP), an extensive program to create a system of reservoirs, interconnected pipelines and pumping stations to provide more flexibility for water deliveries to the San Diego region, especially in the event of an emergency, such as a devastating earthquake. The Water Authority has planned for water needs in an extended drought by creating the Carryover Storage Project (CSP), which provides additional storage to capture water in wet periods for use in dry periods.
Up to 90 percent of the region’s water supply is imported by pipelines travelling hundreds of kilometres across earthquake fault lines from Northern California and the Colorado River. The major component of the fourth and final phase of the ESP is the San Vicente Dam Raise. The project includes raising the existing dam by 35 m to increase the reservoir and provide an additional 187 million m3 of water storage for the region. This will be the largest dam raise in the United States and the largest roller compacted concrete dam raise in the world. The Water Authority has contracted with Parsons/Black & Veatch Joint Venture to provide construction management services for this vital project. The dam raise is another one of the marquee water supply dams and reservoir projects that the Joint Venture members have been involved in Southern California, after successful completion of the Diamond Valley Lake for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Olivenhain Dam for Water Authority.
This paper presents a brief description of the San Vicente Dam Raise, the underlying water shortage and the emergency backup needs, and the need for carryover storage. The dam raise design has been previously presented in numerous papers and publications. Therefore, following an overview and general project description, this paper focuses on the critical role that effective construction management plays in implementation of a dam construction project of this size and complexity. Key construction management activities that are discussed in the paper include engineering design constructability reviews, independent cost estimation and scheduling, on-site laboratory management and quality control, and contractor oversight. The construction manager will be involved in this project through final design and construction over a five-year period.
Keywords: Water Scarcity, San Diego County Water Authority, Emergency Storage Project, San Vicente Dam Raise, Roller-Compacted-Concrete (RCC), Construction Management, Climate Change.
Ben Ross, Jason Brown, Richard Rodd
Goulburn Weir was constructed in 1891 forming Lake Nagambie on the Goulburn River, approximately 8km north of Nagambie in Victoria. It is a key asset in the irrigation network diverting water to 352,000ha in Northern Victoria. The weir was remodelled between 1983 and 1987, replacing 21 overshot gates with nine radial gates. A series of 28 post tensioned bar ground anchors were installed to secure the radial gate concrete support piers to the weir’s mudstone foundations. On 8 March 2006 during routine testing of the pier bar ground anchors, failure of one anchor occurred. It posed a possible risk to pier stability. Subsequently investigations into the cause of failure and its implications was undertaken consisting of a program of data review, site investigations, metallurgical testing, geotechnical investigation, design reviews and stability assessments. It was recommended to replace the failed anchor and 10 other under performing anchors with 8 cable strand anchors at the cost of approximately $1million.
Key words: Risk, bar anchor failure, stability assessment, anchor construction.
Giovanni De Cataldo
The ANCOLD Guidelines on Dam Safety Management August 2003 were formulated to ensure that dam owners adopt a responsible approach towards the safe operation and maintenance of their dams.
Is it possible to safely, responsibly and acceptably work outside the regulatory Guidelines/Requirements?
The challenge for dam owners now and into the future in meeting stringent standards, is to cost effectively manage their assets within available financial constraints whilst minimising risks and maintaining acceptable levels of safety.
With the continuing drought and suppressed storage levels in most dams, the risk to downstream communities and to the environment from dam failure is significantly reduced.
Based on various studies, investigations, internal workshops and external “Expert Panel” reviews, this paper puts forward a case for a sound and responsible risk-based approach to routine visual and surveillance monitoring frequencies at varying storage levels for “Sunny Day” conditions and compares it against traditional ANCOLD standards which are based solely on consequences.
Keywords: State Water Corporation, ANCOLD guidelines, risk-based approach, dam safety, regulator.
Thomas Vasconi, Glen Fergus
Abstract: This paper describes the design of an 80 m-high stepped chute spillway, in gabion material, that will be constructed on a tailings storage facility dam of a mine in South East Asia. This dam, constituted of two cells, will be raised progressively via a series of intermediate crest elevations as mining proceeds, and each lift will be equipped with an operational spillway. The design of such spillways was challenging since it had to integrate local topography configuration, dam design, water balance, wall raise sequence and structure interdependency parameters. The design included flood routing, spillway sizing, stepped spillway design, followed by hydraulic and civil/geotechnical computations. Challenging design aspects included optimizing the stepped spillway structure costs in light of the structure’s short service (estimated to be less than 5 years), and ensuring the stability component. The design incorporates an innovative solution which allows reduction in the rockfill quantity of up to 40% with associated cost benefits, and sustainability in terms of material usage. The lessons learnt in applying this innovative design are useful for other sites requiring adaptive construction and short service life spillways.
Keywords: tailings dam, stepped spillway, hydrology, hydraulics, mine water management, gabions.