José López1, Tim Griggs, Robert J. Montalvo, Richard Herweynen and Ernest Schrader
The Burnett Dam is a 50m high Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Dam with a total RCC volume of
400,000 m3. It is located on the Burnett River, approximately 50km inland from the town of Childers
in Queensland, Australia. The design of the dam commenced in 2003, construction started in
November 2003 and the dam will be completed by the end of 2005.
This paper discusses the construction processes, the extensive quality control program and the
innovations developed for the RCC dam construction.
Key features of the project discussed in this paper are:
During construction, special emphasis was given to the inspection of the processes of production,
transportation, delivering, placement, compaction and curing of the RCC.
Malcolm Barker, Jon Williams and Chi Fai Wan
The Ross River Dam, designed in the early seventies, does not meet current dam safety criteria for overtopping and piping within the embankment or the foundation. The dam comprises a 40m long concrete overflow spillway flanked by a central core rockfill embankment of 130 m on the right bank and 170m on the left bank with a 7620 m long left bank earth fill embankment, which has no internal filter zones for piping protection. The embankment was extensively assessed and treated for foundation deficiencies in 1982, and further assessed in 2000-2002 for appropriate upgrade options.
This paper describes the process of validation of the detailed design using Risk Based Design Criteria.This process included data mining for historical performance and original design intention,comparison of the original design against current and historical investigations and assessment of the upgrades using the large volume of data available from previous work. A design team comprising specialist hydrologists, hydrogeologists, geologists, geotechnical and dams engineers worked within a risk assessment framework at all stages of the design to ensure the design was validated using the design Validation Model. This process incorporated assessment of crest level based on flood risk and wave overtopping, review of 2D and 3D seepage models to assess piping and foundation erosion potential, assessment of fissured soils within the embankment foundation for structural stability and evaluation of spillway model testing for potential spillway failure modes.
R.A. Ayre and T. L. McGrath
SunWater as an owner of 25 major dams in Queensland has completed a programme to update the design flood hydrology of all of its referable structures in accordance with the latest methodology for estimating extreme design floods. This programme ensures the adequacy of existing spillways is included in an overall dam safety portfolio risk assessment in a consistent fashion.
This paper describes the methodology adopted in the re-assessment of the design flood hydrology of the storages. Principally this has meant the use of a design hydrograph approach utilising runoff-routing methods as described in Australian Rainfall and Runoff (1999). Design rainfall inputs have been based on generalised techniques derived by the Bureau of Meteorology such as the Revised Generalised Tropical Storm Method and the Generalised Short Duration Method for the estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation. These estimates, coupled with the use of a regional design rainfall estimation technique known as CRC-Forge that is used for determining large to rare design rainfall estimates, have been used to derive a complete estimate of the inflow/outflow flood frequency curve for each dam.
The paper also provides an insight into the significant factors and relationships that are involved in the changes resulting from this process. Overall, there has been an increase in design rainfall depth estimates for the extreme events, and a general reduction to neutral change in the large to rare rainfall range. These changes plus the influence of temporal effects and the assignment of Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) has led to substantial changes from previous estimates of design floods. The implication of these changes is profound for
an organisation such as SunWater.
Mike Taylor, Jonathan Jensen and Greg Branson
Pykes Creek Dam is a 33 m high, 22,120 ML embankment dam, 72 km west of Melbourne owned and operated by Southern Rural Water.
The outlet works include a 30 m high “wet” outlet tower near the upstream toe of the dam on the right
abutment with its lower half comprising a concrete lined shaft excavated in rock. A 1.5 m diameter
concrete lined tunnel extends 30 m upstream from the base of the tower to a reinforced concrete inlet structure.
The only controls upstream of the downstream toe of the dam comprised 2 guard gates located on the downstream side of the tower, operated manually by means of handwheels from the top of the tower.
Major deficiencies with the outlet works included:
A major constraint in addressing these deficiencies was that any remedial works needed to be
undertaken without draining the reservoir or interfering with the releases required for downstream
consumers, including irrigators in Werribee and Bacchus Marsh.The paper describes how all of the deficiencies have been addressed with no interruption to supply, by means of a collaborative effort between the dam owner, the consulting engineer, and 5 separate contractors, with the dam owner playing a leading role.
Graeme Hannan, David Jeffery
Lake Mokoan is a 365 GL capacity off-stream storage in the Broken River basin in northern
Victoria. Lake Mokoan will be decommissioned to provide 44 GL of water savings to benefit the
River Murray and the Snowy River. The Victorian Government has committed to maintain
reliability of supply in the Broken River supply system by implementing a package of offset projects.
The paper describes the community engagement process implemented by Goulburn-Murray Water
to steer the selection and implementation of the offset projects.
A reference committee of Broken systems irrigators was established in late 2004 to provide advice
to Goulburn-Murray Water and the Department of Sustainability and Environment on the package
of offset measures to be implemented to maintain the supply reliability once the 365 GL capacity
Lake Mokoan was decommissioned, leaving the 40GL capacity Lake Nillahcootie as the sole
storage in the Broken River irrigation system.
A REALM based system simulation model was refined to test the sensitivity of the parameters
defining the system reliability and to assess proposed offsets measures. The paper describes the
modelling which was undertaken and the evaluation and ranking of offset projects priorities.
The community engagement process is described. The paper concludes with commentary of the
lessons learned from this process.
There is a large stock of embankment dams throughout the world needing the assessment of their
safety as required by modern dam safety regulations. Due mainly to economic and site constraints
associated with potential dam upgrading work, it is imperative that a rational approach be adopted in
assessing their safety and in designing the remedial works. One of the most important criteria is the
selection of appropriate geotechnical parameters under different conditions. Predominant loading
conditions in a dam are much different from those in other structures such as bridge and building
foundations and therefore the direct adoption of traditional approaches may not always be valid. This
paper presents the various aspects of issues associated with the stability assessment of dams including
the rational selection of the parameters and numerical codes available to dan/geotechnical engineers
to assess their safety.