N. Vitharana, G. Bell, J. Jensen and J. Sinha
When the storage was enlarged in 1971, Wyangala Dam provided a storage of 1220Gl. The original concrete gravity dam was completed in 1936 with an initial storage of 37.5Gl. The enlargement comprised the construction of a central core earth and rockfill dam utilising the existing concrete gravity as an upstream “toe” dam. At its deepest section, the toe (concrete gravity) dam is 60m high with a base length of 40m. The rockfill dam is 85m and the full supply level is at 75m. Two cylindrical reinforced concrete intake towers were constructed utilising the crest of the toe dam as their bases.
Screening level analyses commissioned by The NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation have recommended that detailed seismic assessment of the toe dam and intake towers be undertaken. In 2001, GHD Pty Ltd undertook inelastic time-history analysis using site-specific seismic loadings. Toe dam was modelled together with the rockfill dam using a 2-dimensional model. Intake towers were modelled incorporating the composite behaviour of concrete and reinforcing steel with limited concrete strains to prevent the loss of cover concrete and the buckling of longitudinal steel. Time-history analyses supplements by conventional pseudo-dynamic analysis procedures.
This paper described the constitutive modelling, structural analysis criteria, evaluation of hydrodynamic and dynamic earth pressures and the findings.
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R.M. Dawson, A. Orange
Karapiro dam is the last in a line of hydro-electric dams on the Waikato River, in New Zealand’s North Island. Investigations identified a potential deficiency in parts of the dam under seismic loading. Detailed investigations and analysis narrowed the deficiency to a low strength clay seam under the concrete gravity left abutment structure. An innovative approach was taken to solving the stability problems at minimum cost, without lowering the storage lake, which would have had significant environmental and social impacts. The process of design and construction was overviewed by an international board of review.
Construction was completed in three main stages with further investigation and design refinement between. The main contract was completed over about eight months and included detailed concrete mix and pour schedule design to control stress development due to temperature gradients for the 2000 + cubic metres of mass concrete placed. While the extent of work was relatively small, the quality control, programming, and presence of a full reservoir throughout demanded a high degree of communication and co-operation between the Principal, Designer and Constructor. Despite some surprises during construction, the project was completed within budget and formed strong bonds between all those involved. This paper briefly describes the design process, and focuses on construction, from the point of view of the Owner, Constructor and the Designer.
Awoonga Dam is located near the town of Gladstone in central Queensland. The dam is on the Boyne River, and supplies water for domestic and industrial use in the Gladstone area. It is also used for recreation including swimming, boating, fishing, sailing and water skiing.
Awoonga Dam was completed in 1984. It has a storage capacity of 289,000Ml, and a submerged area of 3,450ha. The dominant land use in the catchment area is open grazing and includes the Mount Castle Tower National Park. A limestone quarry is also adjacent to the reservoir
The Gladstone Area Water Board (GAWB) own and operate Awoonga Dam. In 1999, the decision was made to raise the existing structure using a staged construction program.
Included in the first stage was the protection of a limestone quarry, which is operated by Frost Enterprises Pty Ltd, and is adjacent to the reservoir. The quarry would be partially inundated unless some form of protection was provided.
This paper provides an outline of the investigation undertaken, the options considered and the solution provided to protect the quarry, hereafter referred to as Frost Quarry.
Bob Wark, Colin Bradbury, Michael Somerford and Michelle Rhodes
The Harvey Dam project is a major component of the Water Corporation’s Stirling-Harvey Redevelopment Scheme, which was developed to provide potable water to Perth. The scheme will deliver 34 GL/annum or about 10% of Perth’s supply. The project timetable was tight. The decision to proceed with the scheme, made in June 1998, required Harvey Dam to be ready to impound water by June 2002.
Construction of the Harvey Dam was complicated by the following:
These and other issues required the development of risk management strategies for the project. The construction risks were allocated within the contract to provide for an equitable sharing of risk between the Contractor and the Principal. The paper describes the development and implementation of the risk management strategies and what lessons have been learnt from the process.
R.A. Ayre and T. L. McGrath
The regulatory environment of Queensland’s water resources has changed significantly within the last few years as a consequence of the passing of the Water Act 2000. SunWater, as the owner of referable dams and the operator of water infrastructure, is required to observe the provisions of the new Act.
SunWater has undertaken dam failure analyses of a number of its dams in accordance with the new guidelines prepared by the Department of Natural Resources and Mines. The results of these assessments are being used as part of a portfolio risk assessment of its assets to help prioritise refurbishment activities. Aspects within the guidelines relate to various ANCOLD publications, with a focus on the consequence of failure for determining incremental hazard categories and appropriate design standards for spillway adequacy.
SunWater also operates its schemes under the provisions of Interim Resource Operation Licenses (IROLs). As part of Government’s water planning process, SunWater is required to submit proposed water management arrangements for its schemes. SunWater develops these arrangements, which include operation, water trading, and monitoring rules, to meet its business objectives and the objectives of government. With government approval, these proposed arrangements will translate to the provisions of Resource Operation Licenses when the Resource Operation Planning (ROP) process is completed.
This paper describes SunWater’s experience and approach to meeting regulatory requirements in the above areas.
Following the construction of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme, flows in the Snowy River have been reduced to 1% of their original level at Lake Jindabyne. The Victorian, NSW and Commonwealth Governments have agreed to restore 212 gigalitres per annum (about 21% flows) to the river over a ten-year period and 28% in the longer term. The increased flows will be sourced primarily through water savings projects in Northern Victoria and NSW. This is a case study in learning how to share our precious water resources between environmental, social and economic needs.