R. E. Saunders, J. Roberts, B. W. Omundson
Ross River Dam is located immediately upstream of the twin cities of Townsville and Thuringowa. The population at risk from failure of the dam is approximately 110,000. A recently completed risk assessment has confirmed earlier studies that the dam does not satisfy current safety criteria and presents high risk levels in a number of areas. Importantly, the risk assessment has enabled the extent of these risks to be clearly identified. This paper summarises the risk assessment highlighting notable methodologies employed and the key findings of the study.
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Now showing 1-12 of 27 2964:
M. B. Barker, R.M. Holroyde, J Williams and T. Qiu
Grahamstown Dam is a major water supply source for the Newcastle area and it is proposed to raise the full supply level by 2.4m from RL 10.4m to RL 12.8m. The present spillway is inadequate to pass the PMF without overtopping of the existing embankments at the new FSL and part of the raising comprises construction of a new embankment of about 10m high with a right bank spillway upstream of the existing spillway capable of passing the PMF. The Pacific Highway is located some 600m downstream of the new spillway and a 60m wide culvert below the Pacific Highway is being constructed with capacity sufficient to pass the PMF. Significant changes were made to the feasibility design for the spillway and the Pacific Highway culvert using a labyrinth spillway and a baffle chute energy dissipator respectively. Both of these designs are uncommon and the process of finalising the designs as well as some of the problems in the use of a labyrinth spillway and the cost savings realised in the use of these designs are presented.
P.I. Hill, D. Cook, R.J. Nathan, P.A. Crowe, J.H. Green, N. Mayo
This paper describes the development of a comprehensive approach to estimating the consequences of failure of a dam. The approach considers separately the consequences in terms of potential loss of life, economic loss and damage to the environment and the development and application of the method involved professionals from a wide range of disciplines. The method has been applied to 28 dams in NSW.
Mark Locke, Buddhima Indraratna, Phillip Cummins and Gamini Adikari
ABSTRACT: Australia has a large number of older embankment dams, which have been in service and performed adequately for over 50 years. However, current industry practice in embankment dam design predicts that the granular filters within these dams may not be adequate. This may require refurbishment of the dam by retro-fitting a new filter to ensure the continued safety of the structure. This paper outlines the potential problems with older embankment dam designs, and the reasons for constructing a new filter. Potential problems may include inadequate or non-existent filters, risk of failure due to earthquake, piping, or excessive foundation seepage. Design methods for granular filters are described briefly, concentrating on whether an existing filter is adequate, and the potential improvement by constructing a new filter. Construction issues for placing filters on existing dams are also discussed.
A new analytical method, developed to describe the time dependent erosion and filtration within embankment dams, is described briefly. The model predicts particle erosion, transport and retention based on fundamental fluid mechanics and geotechnical concepts. The application of this model to the design of filters for new and existing dams will be described. The predictions of such analytical modelling can give a designer a significantly clearer picture of the purpose of a granular filter, the extent of core erosion that can be expected, and the effect of retrofitting a new filter to an existing dam.
P.J. Ritchie and N.A. Currey
Kidston Gold Mines commenced operations in 1984 and built a dam to safely store the tailing waste from the ore processing. The dam was progressively raised 5 times (3 downstream and 2 centreline lifts) and has an active surface area of 310 hectares; stores 66 Mt of tailing and is 32 metres high at its maximum height. The dam was decommissioned in September 1997.
Rehabilitation planning for the tailing dam commenced in 1994 with an 11 hectare direct revegetation trial established in March of that year. A 40 ha trial was established in 1998. Both sites have been the subject of intensive scientific research by the (University of Queensland) Centre for Mined Lands Research group. This research assisted in understanding the issues of revegetation stability and sustainability, biological cycling, soil chemistry and surface erosion.
The aims of rehabilitation is to meet the Queensland Department of Mines and Energy (DME) key closure criteria. These include; creating a stable landform, not only for the dam wall structure but also of low surface erodibility, maintenance of acceptable downstream water quality by controlling poor quality seepage and runoff and by meeting an acceptable final end land use criteria for the structure.
Ongoing research is addressing the long term hydrology of the tailing dam with an aim towards understanding the overall water balance. Three consulting groups are involved in what is considered to be a novel approach. Evapotranspiration rates from pasture and tree species have been measured during the 1999 wet and dry season. This information, along with climatic and soil suction data is then used as one of the key parameters for the unsaturated zone modeling. One output from the “Soilcover” model is seepage into the saturated zone in the tailing dam. Water movements in the saturated zone are being modelled using Modflow. The acid oxidation potential for the dam is also being evaluated in light of the long term water movements in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the dam. This process will allow short and long term prediction of dam seepage quality and quantities.
The geotechnical stability of the final dam wall structure as defined by the Factor of Safety, ranged from 2.0 to 2.3, which meets the long term DME recommended stability target FOS of 1.5 for slopes.
In order to evaluate the impact of metal toxicities in grazing cattle, a grazing trial has been established on the pasture covering the surface sediments of the tailing dam. This work is being supported by the Qld EPA, Qld DME, Qld Health and the NRCET, and will assist in understanding metal uptake in grazing animals on rehabilitated mined lands.
David Dole and Brian Haisman
The $75 million remedial works at Hume Dam on the Murray River near Albury have been of national significance. The rehabilitation program associated with the structure itself and with its appurtenant works is now in the final steps of construction. The authors summarise this program with an emphasis not on technical details, but on decision processes. Equity in this dam is, in effect, held in equal parts by three State governments and by the Commonwealth government. At the same time, in response to the national water reform agenda, the governments have agreed upon new cost sharing arrangements that more nearly reflect the value of services to each government. The particular problems of decision-making within this evolving inter-State environment are discussed.
Lessons from experiments with application of risk analysis are discussed. Finally, the matter of adequacy of the structure for extreme floods is still under consideration. Hume Dam will presently pass the Design Flood developed in accord with Book VI (1999) of Australian Rainfall and Runoff, and the Dam Crest Flood has been estimated to have an annual exceedance probability of 1:110,000. _ Retrofitting a spillway to pass the estimated Probable Maximum Flood will double the cost of remedial works and is estimated at 10 times the cost of similar capacity built into original construction. The authors discuss the public policy elements of this pending decision.