Duane M. McClelland and David S. Bowles
There is a growing concern about the limitations of the approaches to life-loss estimation that are currently used in dam safety risk assessment. This paper summarises insights into factors that affect evacuation effectiveness, loss of life, and survival, based on a detailed review of historical dam breaks and other types of floods. The understanding and empirical characterisation of life loss dynamics being developed from these case histories are intended to provide the foundation for an improved practical life-loss estimation model.
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Contracts are usually thought of as documents which set out the respective legal obligations of the contracting parties. If the focus is changed, however, away from closing legal loopholes to the use of contracts to achieving project management objectives, then, among other things, contracts may be drafted as an integral part of the risk management plan for particular infrastructure assets.
In this paper, where the emphasis is on dam projects, the principles of risk management are applied to contracts for construction, maintenance and surveillance and outsourced technical advice, thereby covering issues over the whole life cycle of the asset. The principles are then broader issues of project procurement. Such as selection of contractor, contract packaging, ,clauses within the contract and administration of the contract.
Shane McGrath and Michelle Cowan
Goulburn-Murray Water (G-MW) is a Victorian rural water authority with responsibility for management of the major water systems within a 68,000 square kilometre region. Following a detailed business risk assessment undertaken in 1996, Goulburn-Murray Water developed a ten-year program to commence design reviews and address identified deficiencies at thirteen dams for which G-MW has responsibility.
In October 1997, the Victorian Government announced a $450 million regional water reform package, of which $35 million was provided for rural water authorities dam improvements. $18.5 million was allocated to G-MW on a ‘dollar for dollar’ basis. With contributions from G-MW customers, the current total funding amounts to $37 million.
This paper focuses on processes that G-MW has adopted to manage an accelerated program of dam design review and remedial work.
Anthony Moulds and Anthony M Watson
The selection of lightning protection equipment will always remain within the cost versus benefit, or risk management area. As more and more monitoring equipment becomes electronic and microprocessor based, we need to have a better understanding of the ways to protect it, and maintain the data flow.
Recent experience has shown that utilising the Australian Standard (NZS/AS 1768-1991) Lightning Protection, in conjunction with a six-point plan, will go a long way to providing total integrated protection for both structures and contents. However, no matter how much protection is applied, damage due to lightning may still occur. For dam surveillance instrumentation the aim ultimately is to protect the transducer ‘in the ground’ or ‘in the dam’, because generally these instruments are inaccessible and non-replaceable without prohibitive drilling and retrofitting costs.
The six-point plan was applied initially to designing lightning protection for a large, well- instrumented RCC dam, completed in 1991. The protection proved to be not as good as was hoped. The paper describes how the lightning protection at the dam was subsequently developed. This experience, which has pointed the way to achieving a good level of protection at a reasonable cost, has been applied to a number of other, instrumented dams.
David S. Bowles, Loren R. Anderson, Joseph B. Evelyn, Terry F. Glover and David M. Van Dorpe
A demonstration risk assessment was conducted on the 283-foot high rolled-earthfill Alamo Dam as part of a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Research and Development program. The existing dam and 19 structural risk reduction alternatives were evaluated for flood, earthquake and normal operating conditions. The paper summarizes the risk assessment process, results, findings and recommendations. It also provides an evaluation of the risk assessment process and recommendations for better positioning the USACE to use risk assessment for dam safety evaluation and decision support.
S. Knight, B. Cooper and P. van Breda
Warragamba Dam was completed in 1960 and impounds Sydney’s main water supply storage. Hydrological studies in the 1980’s showed the existing spillway to be significantly undersized by modern standards. Considering the dam’s High Incremental Flood Hazard category, the current risk of dambreak is unacceptably high. This has resulted in a two-stage program to upgrade the dam to full Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) capability.
The interim (first stage) measures were completed in 1990 and involved a 5.1 metre raising of the dam crest and significant post-tensioning of the dam wall. Following many feasibility/option studies and detailed technical and environmental studies, a contract was let by Sydney Water Corporation (SWC) in late 1998 for the construction of an auxiliary spillway as the major (second stage) component of the flood security upgrading. The spillway will be a large capacity (about 18,000m*/s) concrete lined chute 700 metres long around the dam’s right abutment. In the upper curved section will be the largest fuse plug embankments in Australia (up to 14.5 metres high). The lower straight section will terminate with a flip bucket structure.
The NSW Department of Public Works and Services (DPWS) designed the earlier Interim Works, undertook the subsequent engineering option studies for the Major Works and carried out the concept design and technical specification for the new auxiliary spillway and associated dam modification works. This paper summarises the project, describes the main features of the concept design of the spillway and outlines the associated dam modifications.